Wednesday, October 16, 2019
The North American Berdache - Coursework Example Such people are also called two-spirited people. Way back in history the Spanish 'Conquistadors' came across two-spirited individuals in almost every town or village they visited in Central America. It was believed in the past that these individuals possessed numinous powers. History says that once in an encounter between a tribe and a group of women the soldiers of the tribe found that one of the women was a Berdache they ran frightened when the women started running after them. This proves the point that Berdaches contained significance in North America. However some writers criticize these individuals. Natives were and are usually thought of as warriors. Now when it is discovered about the Berdaches, writers criticize it as being a social failure. The reason being that such individuals believe that these people do not possess masculine qualities in them and hence are failure for their culture and their tribe. The writer Lang comments that in the past cross dressing that is male dressing like a female or a female dressing like a male did not mean they were necessarily Berdaches. He believed that dressing did not describe a person's society role, gender or even the partner he or she would choose for his or her life. A child's gender was decided by his or her tendency towards masculine or feminine activities. Clothing only mattered at the stage of Puberty to display a person's gender. Two-spirited people with a male body could go on a war, could even indulge in male activities such as sweat lodges. However they even had the capabilities of performing feminine tasks such as cooking and other domestic jobs. However now such feminine males are looked down by the society. People take them as a shame to the society and no longer look at their dual capabilities. These two spirited people or berdaches had sexual relations with any of the gender. How ever in the early days and even now Female bodied berdaches were involved in sexual relations with the female gender (now who are usually named as lesbians). A classic example of a relationship or a marriage was seen in the Lakota tribe which had male bodied berdaches, which would marry usually other males whose wife had passed away. They could take up the job of nursing the children of the family. Such people how ever did not gain much recognition, but some people believed that having sexual relations with two spirited people would get them magical powers. It was even believed that male-bodied berdaches having sex with another male will lead to the increasing of the masculinity of the other male. Another example brings in a totally new study of these two spirited
Tuesday, October 15, 2019
Foundations of terrorism - Essay Example Today, almost every terrorist group makes use of suicide terrorism to some extent to cause terror and instability in the targeted place. However, the terrorist groups that have made the greatest use of this form of terrorism are Al-Qaeda (based in Afghanistan and operating mainly in Afghanistan and Pakistan), Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, Hamas (based in Palestine), and Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (based in Sri Lanka). The main aim of the suicide terrorist attacks is to make a democratic government to withdraw its forces from the terroristsÃ¢â¬â¢ occupied areas (Pape, 2005). Similarly, some terrorist groups carry out suicide attacks in response to foreign occupation of their land (Pape, 2005). We can take example of suicide attacks on Pakistani civilians and military forces. Pakistan is a neighbor of Afghanistan and almost a second home to the Al-Qaeda terrorists. Al-Qaeda is still active despite of the loss of its top leadership by the American forces on account of its attack on the World Trade Centre (Kugelman, 2014). The group is expanding rapidly and is becoming a big threat to the lives of thousands of people (Salama & Hansell, 2005, p. 615). Al-Qaeda has been targeting forces and civilians of Pakistan since American occupation of Afghanistan. The reason they give for these terrorist attacks is that of the support that Pakistan has provided and is still providing to the NATO forces operating in Afghanistan. Similarly, Hamas has also carried out a number of suicide attacks on Israeli targets because of PalestineÃ¢â¬â¢s conflict with Israel and Israeli occupation of some of the Palestinian territory. Another example is of Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) which acted actively in two completes decades of 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s and 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s and in the first of half of 2000Ã¢â¬â¢s to get an independent state for Tamil
Statapult (catapult) strike experiment - Essay Example Afterwards, 6 trials of that best possible angle are done and checking done to see whether we are getting similar distances as those we obtained theoretically. The results gotten indicate nearly similar distances as those obtained from equation which is 160cm.Furthermore,we have to determine the 95 percent CI from Minitab which is (151.99,168.01)cm ,whereas the anticipated confidence level is in the range of 95 percent CI. Introduction This experiment assists in coming up with a prediction equation for the statapult to strike a specific target. Multiple projectiles will be fired at differing angles, arm and peg settings. Through doing this; adequate data can be collected so as to establish the equation that controls the distance of the projectile. By utilizing this equation the maximum as well as the minimum distances that the projectile can travel can be figured out. A target distance that we can hit is then provided. By use of the Minitab software, the optimal settings will be computed and so as to establish the needed target distance and then 6 trials of the distance we get from the optimum settings are done. After trials are done, the uncoded angle (1500) is then converted to coded angle (-0.5) so as to determine the theoretical target distance of Y (-0.5, 1, 1) = 164.05 cm which is almost near the specified targeted value; 160 cm. Finally we have to determine the confidence interval from those 6 trials data wh ich is (154.76, 165.90) and it lies well within the confidence for interval for the mean, (151.99, 168.01), found out in the Minitab.
Why I want to be a Nurse Essay I heard the familiar sound of the front door closing gently. My father was returning from work as a barber. Although he begins his day at 5:00 a.m. every morning, he usually returns at around 7:00 p.m. I never really questioned his schedule when I was a child, but as I entered high school I wondered how my dad could work so hard every day of the week and still enjoy what he does. The uncertainties of barbering are so great and so challenging. It never ceases to amaze me when my father wakes up every morning to start work, that he does so with gusto. The life of a barber can be laborious and stressful, yet my father continues to do his work with passionate enthusiasm. His dedication and pride mystified me throughout high school. Only after I entered college in my late 20s, did I start to understand how he could persevere and face the challenges of raising a family and running his business. I entered college like a small child wandering through a park. Never in my life had I been exposed to anything so grandiose and dominating. Born and raised in a rural town, I wasnt ready for the fast-paced life and crowds. I eventually grew into its lifestyle and learned to adapt to my new environment. I found my communication class, in which we discussed major issues in health care, especially interesting. The nurses dilemma particularly intrigued me: Doing everything to provide the best health care possible, but constrained by limited resources when the funds just are not available. These frustrating situations place a huge strain on nurses, and yet they persevere and continue to work long hours in hospitals, and clinics providing the best care they can. While thoroughly aware of the long hours a nurse must work and the challenges he or she faces, I am choosing medicine because of the unique satisfaction it provides the rewards of helping a sick human being. As I think about a nurses life, I also think of the many times I have watched my father sit silently at the dinner table, deep in thought, contemplating his options when his business was not bringing in enough income and the bills continue to arrive. I didnt hear him complain; I only heard him leave early in the morning and come home late in the evening to make sure that we had everything he did not as a child growingÃ up. I also saw determination and tenacity in my mother and father to never give up but to keep on trying to the achieve a higher goal. They both came from very large and poor families and were determined to not have me grow up without an education. I will harness that determination in my life and my quest to earn my degree in nursing. They showed me what it means to really enjoy a career. I can have that same enjoyment through nursing the same type of enjoyment my Parents had from tending to their jobs, and businesses. Becoming a nurse is a goal aspired to by many. As a barbers son, I have wakened early and returned home late from long days with my father. I have been able to experience uncertainties, challenges, and plain old hard work similar to that faced by nurses. But like the doctors in the hospitals and my parents in their work, I can find happiness and satisfaction in helping people through medicine. Despite all the hardship nurses face, I want to help people every day. Nursing is something worth stress and long hours. I finally understand my father. I now know how he can wake up every morning at 5:00 a.m. and work hard until 7:00 p.m. and now I will do the same for my family. I will heavily stress the importance of a college degree and a good work ethic. I feel that this is the reason more and more Hispanics are earning their college degrees; they dont want the hardships of their past generations to be placed on their children.
Police Department Organization Essay There are three different types of police departments they individually have their own jurisdictions nonetheless their structure is very similar. For bigger departments the structure is going to be more in depth mainly because of all the moving parts in its system. For those smaller departments it will be smaller due to fewer personnel on shift and tasks at hand. In the Unites States we have three different types of police departments local, state, and federal. In this paper you will find a brief description of all three. In the city of El Centro California we have a smaller department due to the population here in El Centro. El Centro Police Department was established in 1908 it involves 58 sworn officers and 26 civilian employees. The structure is made up of the Police Chief, Commanders, Lieutenants, Sergeants, field officers, and civilian employees. This department comprises of three sub-divisions patrol, traffic, and Crisis Response Unit. Patrol is in charge of patrolling the city and making police presence known. Traffic division handles city traffic and makes sure that residents and visitors alike are respecting all speed limits and traffic signals. Crisis Response Unit is a specialized unit that has been established to handle critical field operations. It manages sensitive calls such as those where negotiations are needed; it is also capable of deploying specialized units where highly trained officers are need. Investigations Division accounts for two sergeants, seven detectives, one community service officer, and a secretary. Four of the seven detectives are assigned to handle multi-jurisdictional narcotics enforcement and one detective is allocated to juvenile crimes. Evidence and property is controlled by the community service officer. The person responsible for the Investigation Divisions smooth operations is the division secretary. The Chief, Executive Commander, and Staff assistant lead the Administration Division. Police Chief Jim McGinley is the current chief for El Centro police department. Chief McGinley has 32 years of law enforcement practice; previously he served as Commanding Officer for San Diego Police Department. Prior to retirement in 2005 Chief McGinley headed the Investigations Divisions 2. Chief McGinley was in charge of elder abuse, auto theft, financial crimes, robbery, gangs, and homicide. California Highway Patrol was formed August 14, 1929. It consists of eight different divisions throughout California. Their structure is very similar to a military unit. At the top of its structure is the Commissioner which has the following offices under it Office of Special Representative, Office of Inspector General, and Office of Employee Relations. Deputy Commissioner follows with the Office of legal affairs, Medical Relations, and Equal Employment Opportunity. After that the structure branches of into two different components one being administrative and the other being the officers on the beat. Assistant Commissioner Staff has several departments like Administrative Service Division, Information management, Enforcement Planning, Office of the Academy, Internal Affairs, Office of Employee Assistance safety, and the Office of Organization Development. Assistant Commissioner Field is the other branch that I mentioned. This office also has various divisions and offices like Protective Service Division, Office of Air Operations, State Security Division, and all of it different patrol divisions in the state. The state is broken down into eight different divisions I will name them form southern California to northern California; Border Division, Southern Division, Inland Division, Central Division, Costal Division, Valley Division, Golden gate Division, and Northern Division. California Highway Patrol has two main missions the primary one is to make sure that all traffic and transportation along freeways and state routes. CHP officer still maintain police authority out of state route and freeways. CHPÃ¢â¬â¢s secondary mission is to aid and assist to any emergencies that exceed local capabilities. A federal police agency is the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) and it was founded in July 1973 formed by President Richard Nixon. He established this agency to combat the war on drugs and not only nationwide but worldwide as well. According to the Drug Enforcement Administration web page the DEA has nearly 5,000 Special Agents and a budget of $2.02 billion. The Administrations structure is very complex and consists of many different divisions. At the top of its enormous structure it has its Administrator and Deputy Administrator followed by five different branches forming the top of this structure. It has Executive Equal Opportunity Employee Assistant Staff (ADE), Executive Policy Strategic Planning Staff (ADS), Office of Administrative Law Judges (LJ), Office of Chief Council, and Office of Congressional public Affairs. Drug Enforcement Administration has many other divisions and departments that they account for a whole thirty one of them to be exact with the last one being field operations. DEA has a much larger structure mainly because it not only fights the war on drugs and terrorism in the United States but it also must do it worldwide. References www.chp.ca.gov www.cityofelcentro.org/police/ www.justice.gov/dea
Monday, October 14, 2019
Competitive Corporate Strategy Strategy In Context Commerce Essay The very definition of strategy is elusive as there are many different opinions on what strategy actually involves. Often a generalised description is given such as top managements plans to attain outcomes consistent with the organisations missions and goals (Wright et al., 1993, p3). However, De Wit and Meyer (2010) state There is no simple answer to the question of what strategy is. They continue to describe strategy in terms of three main dimensions: process, content and context. These are referred to as the input, throughput and output of strategy, or the How, the What and the Where. Each of these dimensions should be regarded as parts of the whole and while one can focus ones attention on any single dimensions it should never the less be in regard to the interaction with the other two (De Wit Meyer, 2010). Accordingly it is with this proviso that this report looks at the strategy process. The complexity and contradictions of strategy with regard to the above mentioned dimensions offer many different strategy perspectives, often contradicting one another. This gives rise to particular tensions and result in strategic paradoxes that are best analysed using a dialectical approach (De Wit Meyer, 2010). By analysing two opposing points of view the strategist can identify the tension as a paradox and reconcile the opposites as best as possible, hopefully arriving at a best of both worlds conclusion. Figure . Tension as a paradox (Aidan ODriscoll, 1986) 3.0 The Strategy Process 3.0.1 Aspects of the Strategy Process De Wit and Meyer (2010) identify strategy process in terms of how, who and when. How is the strategy to be made, who is involved and when do such strategic activities take place? Many argue that the strategic process is not linear, such as in analysis, formulation and implementation, it is more intuitive and creative. It is considered that there are three areas of the strategic process: strategic thinking, strategy formation and strategic change but that these are not phases, stages or elements of the strategic process but rather different aspects of the strategy process, which are linked and overlap ( De Wit Meyer, 2010) Figure . Aspects of the Strategy Process ( De Wit Meyer, 2010) Foe each of the strategy topics certain paradoxes can be identified and associated with two complementary perspectives. Figure . Strategy topics, paradoxes and perspectives ( De Wit Meyer, 2010) For each of the strategy topics case studies (or short case studies) have been used to illustrate the strategic dichotomies that exist and show how the individual companies implemented the opposing types of strategic perspectives. 3.0.2 Strategic Thinking De Wit and Meyer (2010, p 53) suggest that managers must go through a strategic reasoning process in order to find ways to resolve the challenges of strategic problems. This strategic reasoning is a string of strategic thinking activities directed at defining and resolving strategic problems. The cognitive activities involved in strategic thinking are categorised as defining a strategic problem and solving a strategic problem. As can be seen in Figure 4 below defining constitutes identification and diagnosis while solving consists of conception and realisation. However, the thought processes adopted by managers do not always follow such a formulated and logical ideal. It is often a case of a mixture of structured analytical process combined with intuitive reflection. Figure . Elements of a strategic reasoning process ( De Wit Meyer, 2010) It is this mixture of opposites, analysis and intuition, in varying degrees that create a tension and produces a paradox of logic and creativity. Logical thinking involves analysing empirical facts, formulating strategic options and subjecting them to formal evaluation (De Wit Meyer, 2010). This allows the manager to understand what is actually happening rather than what is perceived to be happening, based on habits, routines, and personal beliefs. Generative reasoning and creative thinking describe the use of intuition to bypass the restrictions of logical thinking to make leaps of imagination and create new ways of looking at old problems (De Wit Meyer, 2010). This is not without substance; such reasoning is based on knowledge gained through education, experience and interaction with others. This knowledge resides in the form of cognitive maps (Tolman, E., cited by Downs and Stea, 2005) which combined with observed behaviour can then lead to the prediction of behaviour (Eden, 1992). The paradox of generative reasoning and creative thinking is further discussed in Appendix 1 where two short case studies are used to compare the different approaches applied by Berkshire Hathaway (rational reasoning perspective) and Google (generative reasoning perspective). 3.0.3 Strategy Formation Strategy formation is concerned with realising both strategic formulation and strategic action. It encompasses intended strategy (a pattern of decisions) and realised strategy (a pattern of actions) (De Wit and Meyer, 2010). This concedes that strategy is a pattern as in a consistency of behaviour over time (Mintzberg et al, 2009, p 10). While still using the four elements of a strategic reasoning process discussed earlier (See Fig 4) there are additional activities that can be further developed into eight basic building blocks of strategic formation process (Fig. 5). Figure . The main strategy formation activities (De Wit and Myer, 2010) Who carries out strategic formation in an organisation varies from CEOs to those on the shop floor. De Wit and Meyer (2010) identify three variations in who carries out these activities: Top vs. middle vs. bottom roles Line vs. staff roles Internal vs. external roles De Wit and Meyer (2010) also give a warning regarding a formalised strategic planning system. While this can give a framework for the setting of tasks and responsibilities etc it can also become over bureaucratic and not only stifle innovation and creativity but become a means of demotivation. Mintzberg et al. (2009) identifies a formalisation edge where a structured, formalised system has a break-point, after which instead of supporting strategic activities it begins to become intrusive. Figure . The formalisation edge (Mintzberg et al, 2009) Mintzberg (1987) argues that definitions of strategy as a plan and strategy as a pattern (of behaviour) can be independent of each other. He describes a planned strategy as intended strategy and a pattern of strategy as realised strategy. This allows us to distinguish between deliberate strategy, where previous intentions were realised and emergent strategies, where patterns developed without prior intention (or unrealised intentions). Figure . Deliberate and emergent strategies (Mintzberg, 1987) The tension between deliberate strategy and emergent strategy are discussed in Appendix 2 in relation to the case studies of Strategic Planning at United Parcel Services. 3.0.3 Strategic Renewal Organisations change, whether to maintain competition with its rivals, change through innovation in technology or the changing environment of the business. Growth itself is dependent upon change and management of such changes is paramount. Clarke (1994) states Change is an accelerating constant (cited by Senior et al, 2006). De Wit and Mayer (2010) suggest that change can be strategic or operational stating that While operational changes are necessary to maintain the business and organisational systems, strategic changes are directed at renewing them. Organisational structure, organisational processes and organisational culture are the pillars on which the business system stands (De Wit and Meyer, 2010). The hierarchy of a company, its policies and procedures and its shared beliefs determine the companys capabilities, what type of renewal it is capable of and how such renewal can be managed and implemented. Much of these organisational components are hidden within the company as informal elements and requires careful consideration to identify accurately the true situation within a company (see Fig. 8). Figure . The Iceberg Model (Senior and Swailes, 2010) There is a distinction in particular between disruptive change and gradual change. Revolutionary and evolutionary are used here to describe the paradox between these two types of changes (Greiner, 1972). De Wit and Meyer (2010) state that it is widely accepted that a balance is required between Strategic (revolutionary) change and operational (evolutionary) change. Figure . Types of change (Prime Ministers Strategy Unit, 2010) Appendix 3 discusses the application of change in the case study on Ferrari Transforming the Prancing Horse. 4.0 Conclusion The tensions that are apparent throughout the strategy process and their resultant paradoxes suggest strategic activities are either of one side of the paradox or the other. In some case this may be accurate; the acquisition of a company by another may well, though not always, constitute a revolutionary, big bang, change where fundamental changes are made across each company in a relatively short space of time. However, in order to facilitate the actual implementation of the change and to provide some consistency during and after such a change will require the adaption of existing systems, processes and procedures within each company. This suggests that even in such a situation there is a combination of strategic approaches both revolutionary and evolutionary, indicating that a pluralistic approach is required to develop, implement, manage and sustain change. It can also be seen that even with such paradoxes as logic vs. creativity there is a balance between the two in how they are applied. In the short case study for Google, for example, it is clear that this is a highly creative organisation with a deliberate strategy of promoting free thinking, but within boundaries. These boundaries allow for intuition and creativity but only within a cooperate structure that is very much aligned to the business model and its goal to sustain and increase the companys profitability. It would also seem that few strategies are purely deliberate or purely emergent; there is generally a mixture of the two to some degree. Strategies have to form as well as be formulated (Mintzberg et al., 2009). So, in essence, it is the decision of the strategist to reconcile these opposites, decide what sort of balance is to be made and provide the best of both worlds solutions. References De Wit Meyer. (2010). Strategy: Process, Content, Context (Vol. 4th). Andover, Hampshire, UK: Cengage. Aidan ODriscoll. (1986). Exploring paradox in marketing: managing ambiguity towards synthesis. Retrieved March 20th, 2011, from Journal of Business Industrial Marketing: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=1657811show=html Buttel, M. (2010, March 3rd). 10 years on:When the bubble burst. Retrieved March 20th, 2011, from Financial Service Technology: http://www.fsteurope.com/news/when-the-bubble-burst/ Downs, R. and Stea. D. (2005). Image Environment: Cognitive Mapping and Spatial Behaviour. New Jersey: Transaction Publishers. Eden, C. (1992, May). Journal of Management Studies. Retrieved March 20th, 2011, from Wiley online Library: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-6486.1992.tb00664.x/ Greiner, L. (1972). Evolution and Revolution as Organisations Grow. Harvard Business Review. Mintzberg, H. (1987). The Strategy Concept I: Five Ps For Strategy. California Business Review , 13. Mintzberg. H, and Alhstrand. B, and Lampel. J. (2009). Strategy Safari. Harlow: Pearson Education. Prime Ministers Strategy Unit. (2010). Change Management in Practice. Retrieved March 20th, 2010, from Strategy Survival Guide: http://interactive.cabinetoffice.gov.uk/strategy/survivalguide/skills/pd_change.htm Wilson, I. (2010). From scenario thinking to stratgic action. In D. w. Meyer, Corporate strategy: process, content, context (p. 153 to 157). Andover: Thomas Renvoize. Wright, P., Pringle, C., and Kroll, M. (1992). Strategic Management: Text and Cases. Needham Heights, Massachusetts, USA: Allyn and Bacon. Appendix 1 The paradox of generative reasoning and creative thinking 1) The Rational Reasoning Perspective Two short cases studies have been used from the course book De Wit Meyer (2010). Strategy: Process, Content, Context (Vol. 4th). The first is Exhibit 2.2 (p66), The Rational Reasoning Perspective Berkshire Hathaway:Not Outside the Box (2009). The study introduces Warren Buffett (The sage of Omaha), a highly sucessful investor and owner of the insurance and investment conglomarate Berkshire Hathaway. Although at his peak as an investor in the 1980s and 1990s it was regarded that he had failed to grasp the investment potential of the new paradigm for the Information Age based on the Internet . Instead he continued to invest in established old firms, such as Coca Cola and Gillette and completely avoided the opportunity to invest in Internet stocks, which he regarded as chain letters. As the dotcom boom subsided it was clear that the volume of those trying to exploit the opportunity had far outweighed the actual performance of the companies involved. It is not accurate to say the dotcom boom was a failure, those that had good business models succeeded spectacularly (such as Google, Amazon, Wikipedia sites eBay) but it is clear that the over investment was not justified and that many companies were just not generating enough profits to continue. There were added complications such as the US Federal Reserve had increased its interest rate six times over 1999 and the beginning of 2000, the federal court decision that Microsoft was a monopoly as well as the bellwether (or barometer stock the stock of a company that is regarded as a leader in its given industry) sale of high tech stock shares of March 10th 2000. These include selling of shares of Cisco, IBM, and Dell etc. and while coincidental to the actual dotcom boom itself would have undermined further the confidence in an already falling market (Buttel, 2010) Buffetts insistence on sticking to a formula he understood and was well proven enabled him to escape the ravages of the dotcom bubble burst and instead of being derided as being outdated was again lauded as a canny investor. This was not the first time Buffet had gone against the trend, in 1969 he avoided the stock market frenzy which other investors had thrown themselves into, declaring I am out of step with present conditionsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦On one point however I am clear. I will not abandon previous approaches whose logic I understand. Again, in 2008, Buffett went completely against the trend and, in the worst recession since the Great Depression (1929 to 1940) and despite already loosing up to 25 billion USD of market value within one year invested 5 billion USD in Goldman Sachs, quoting Today my money and my mouth both say equities. Buffett states his reason for his success as including: Analyse the company to separate investment from speculation Meticulously diagnose the sustainability of the competitive advantage of the company Stay away from ill-understood businesses in fast-changing environments Understanding that risk comes from not knowing what you are doing He is also wary of those witch doctors proposing to be scientific and rational while selling investment advice. Buffetts criterion for investment is a highly structured analytical method which appears almost devoid of any type of intuitive or innovative behaviour. It is based upon consistent, well tried decision making that refuses to stray away from what has been a successful formula. He is, without doubt, following a strategic reasoning process in a highly formulated and logical manner. It is obviously a successful formula for Berkshire Hathaway but there must be some doubt about whether such a rigid style is suitable for other companies without the existence of such a charismatic character as warren Buffett at its helm. And this raises its own questions: is the strategic thinking deployed by Buffett as rigid as it would first appear? Is there actually an element of intuitiveness inherent behind the strategy? Would someone else, using the same formula for investment, come up with the same results, or is the presence of Buffett in the mix the catalyst that makes for a successful formula? 2) The Generative Reasoning Perspective This uses the short case study Exhibit 2.3 (p69), The Generative Reasoning Perspective Google: Experiment in Anarchy. Google, as mention previously, is one of the companies that managed to sucessfully navigate out of the dotcom era. Since 1998 it has continued to grow to over 22,000 employees and over 22 billion USD (figures for 2008). Googles missionto organise the worlds information and make it universally acceptable and usefull. No idle boast, Google has introduced a phenominal range of products which has allowed it to achieve its stated mission, so much so that in 2006 the Oxfor English Dictionary include the verb: Google : intr. To use the Google search engine to find information on the Internet. trans. To search for information about (a person or thing) using the Google search engine. (OED, 2010). Googles innovative company structure includes Google labs, small teams working on ideas and experimenting with possible solutions. Sharing all its development across its teams and allowing other teams to make suggestions and give feedback feed the innovative and intuition that is the hallmark of Googles success.There 70/20/10 model allows for 70% of a persons time to be spent on mainstream business activities, 20% on new, approved projects and, perhaps the most innovative of all, the remaining 10% on developing personal projects as dreams as long as it is in line with the spirit of the core company value to do no evil. The strategy of creativity with generative reasoning is clear and has had a fundamental effect on the success of Google and its impressive employment record. The bottom-up approach certainly allows for innovation and resulting ideas to be turned into working applications within relatively short timeframes. Googles CEO, Eric Schmidt states we dont have a traditional strategy planning process, like youd find in traditional technical companies and while this may be true this does not mean that there is no planning or indeed a lack of a structured strategic process. Perhaps the final paragraph of this case study is most telling. Jim Lewinski, Googles managing director, states Creativity loves constraintÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦.let people explore, but set clear boundaries for that exploration. Rationality is not absent in Googles strategy, it is just tempered with the culture of innovation. Unlike Buffetts rigid and controlling influence of Berkshire Hathaway, Google has a far more flexible strategic approach that, given the continuation of its established company culture, will continue to thrive no matter who is at the helm. Appendix 2 The paradox of generative reasoning and creative thinking Strategic Planning at United Parcel Services A case study has been used for this analysis from the course book De Wit Meyer (2010). Strategy: Process, Content, Context (Vol. 4th). Strategic Planning at United Parcel Services By David A. Garvin and Lynne C. Levesque (pp 702 to 718). United Parcel Services (UPS) has grown from its beginnings in 1907 to a 37 billion USD global corporation with a workforce of over 384,000, over 3,500 retail locations in the US alone and servicing more than 200 countries. In addition it has its own airline (UPS Airlines) which is ranked the 10 largest in the world (figures as of 2005). The companys founder, Jim Casey, developed a reputation for running the company like a military operation. With an emphasis on efficiency and discipline UPS developed a culture of continuous improvement, which Casey called constructive dissatisfaction. UPSs workforce was known for its longevity; all the companys CEOs were time-served and had risen through the company from the lowest ranks. Until the early 1990s it is started that UPS had no actual formal strategic planning process, although in the mid-1970s a decision had been made to expand the company globally and over the following ten years resulted in the forming of a Strategic Technology Group charged with developing technological solutions. In the early 1990s it was recognised that the companys execution mentality was hindering managements ability to see significant changes in the environment. This led to the setting up of a Strategic Advisory Group in 1996 to consider and debate strategic issues. In addition another group, CSG, was setup to develop strategic processes for planning for the future. From these activities the company began developing its own strategic process using scenario planning, strategic planning and support for strategic decision-making and strategy implementation. Although using multiple tools and methodologies the approach was made to work, this was helped by the continued support of the CEO who was himself regarded as the chief strategist. A major aspect of UPSs strategy from 1997 was to adoption of scenario planning. This is a management tool designed to explore what could happen given certain situations. Creating different scenarios allows managing to have a better understanding of possible events and help in the decision making process. The aim of scenarios is to develop a resilient strategy within the frameworks of alternative futures provided by the scenarios (Wilson, 2010). The use of scenario planning had been popularised after an article by Peter Wack in 1985, describing a scenario building exercise at Royal Dutch Shell (Mintzberg et at., 1990) The use of these scenarios had a fundamental impact on the company. They defined the companys new corporate charter, a change in the companys mission statement, identification of key themes and insights, the creation of a platform for management and discussions and, according to the authors of this case study, a mind-set shift for at least some managers. In 2002 the company developed their Centennial Plan, a long term strategic plan to take the company not just into their 100th year but also into the new millennium. The plan developed four key strategic imperatives: Winning team Value-added solutions Customer focus Enterprise excellence To support this Strategic Road Map was formulated which formed teams to work on specific strategic areas. Each team broke down its imperative to 24 discrete projects (critical initiatives), themselves supported by more than one hundred specific projects. Because of the complexity of the plan John McDevitt was brought in (from being Vice President of Air Operations) to be in charge of strategic integration. In 2002 the company developed their use of scenarios further to extend its focus into the new millennium. While understanding the limitations of scenario planning it allowed for creative thinking within a planning environment. This would seem to be a situation where formal planning, a deliberate strategy, works with the help of an instrumentalist, emergent approach. While scenario planning, in name and nature is very much part of the planning school of thought the creativity of thought applied and the adaption of scenarios to develop further scenarios is very much an incrementalist approach. UPS, while using a planned approach to strategy, are also encourage the use of innovation within their strategic thinking.
The capital punishment Capital Punishment Capital punishment is the lawful act of taking the life of a person who has been convicted of a crime. There has much debate over the years concerning capital punishment and its effectiveness as a crime deterrence, retribution, and the methods in which the executions are carried out. All the mentioned factors lead to the question of should the United States use capital punishment? According to Cheatwood the deterrence argument for capital punishmentclaims that the existence of thedeath penalty and the use of that penalty will deter violent crime within the political jurisdiction in which the law exist and is applied. If that is true, then in two fundamentally similar jurisdictions that differ only in the existence and use of capital punishment the level of violent crime in the jurisdiction that employs the death penalty should be lower than the level in the jurisdiction that does not (Cheatwood,1993,para.17). Cheatwood(1993) found that in consideration of the research conducted in 1976 it showed that neither the existence of capital punishment at state level, nor the enactment of provision as demonstrated by the number of executions in the state would have an effect on deterring crime at the county level. Some think that capital punishment is brutal, others believe that it is retribution for horrific crimes committed (Zimring, 2000). Many would agree with me that in the case of Angel Diaz a man who was convicted and sentenced to death was subjected to brutal and inhumane conditions, something went terribly wrong. The drugs administered left his arms badly burned; the medical examiner said that none of the medication administered went to the right place. Witnesses stated the deceased seemed to suffer during the process, according to testimony it took 34 minutes, which is 20 minutes longer than usually required for an execution. According to testimony 14 vials of material was used before Diaz was successfully executed (National Public Radio,2007). Jed Bush who was the Governor of Florida during this botched execution called the moratorium in that state on all prosecutions until they could get to the bottom of what was going wrong with the legal injection protocol(National Public Radio, 2007). During an interview on National Public Radio Dahlia Lithwick stated that 22 of the 40 states that allow the death penalty either have moratoria or theyre considering imposing moratoria. Two other states formally banned lethal injection, and one has found the death penalty unconstitutional (National Public Radio,2007). Some states admit that they believe in capital punishment but do not agree with the disastrous way it is administered (National Public Radio,2007). Some states think that if the accused has committed murder then he or she must die as retribution. They believe that life imprisonment does not serve as retribution for the loss of innocent life. Defenders of capital punishment also argue that it is a crime deterrent. I do not agree with capital punishment, but many agree that it is just retribution. How can we stand behind a law that commits the same act that it convicts? I do agree that society has an obligation to protect its citizens. Murderers and others who commit crimes that are detrimental to the safety and welfare of society should be reprimanded but lawfully killing another is committing murder. Some feel that the only way to guarantee that a convicted murderer will not kill again is by imposing the death penalty. This is true; the accused will not kill again because he or she is deceased. Most research has produced no findings that capital punishment is a crime deterrent. There is no evidence to support the claim that the death penalty is a more effective deterrent of violent crime than, say, life imprisonment. In fact, statistical studies that have compared the murder rates of jurisdictions with and without the death penalty have shown that the rate of murder is not related to whether the death penalty is in force: There are as many murders committed in jurisdictions with the death penalty as in those without. Unless it can be demonstrated that the death penalty, and the death penalty alone, does in fact deter crimes of murder, we are obligated to refrain from imposing it when other alternatives exist (Andre Velasquez,1988,). This is a debate that will go on for years to come. Capital punishment should be abolished because of botched executions and claims of racism. It also fair to say that those who cant afford to appeal their cases because of lack of funds are more likely sentenced to death than those who can afford a good legal defense. In some cases innocent people are sentenced to death. All life is of value whether or not it is taken illegal or legal it is unjust. References Cheatwood, D.(1993).Capital punishment and the deterrence of violent crime in comparable counties.Criminal Justice Review(Georgia State University), 18(2), 165-181. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=truedb=sihAN=14243834site=ehost-live Zimring, E. F. (2000) Capital Punishment, Online Encyclopedia Retrieved from http://autocww.colorado.edu/~blackmon/E64ContentFiles/LawAndCourts/CapitalPunishment.html National Public Radio, Day to Day. (2007, February13). Florida mulls lethal-injection problems. Message posted to http://http:/www.npr.org/templates/transcript/transcript.php?storyId=7382349 Andre, C., Velasquez, M.(1988).Capital punishment our duty or doom.Isssues in Ethics, 1(3), . Retrievedfromhttp://www.scu.edu/ethics/publications/iie/v1n3/capital.html
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