Monday, September 30, 2019
Key Events/Case Synopsis National Fabricators Inc. is a company that specializes in the manufacturing of lockers, school furniture, toilet partitions, steel shelving, and is now currently owned by Tom Kruger after buying out $75,000 of shares from shareholders in 1992. The industry is very competitive as costs are rising and prices being cut while the economy declines at the same time. As the president of National Fabricators, Tom Kruger needs to bring the company back on its feet in order to generate profits and reduce its losses of $480,315 and outstanding bank loans of $784,000.Tom Kruger also predicts that sales would fall as much as 10% during the 1994 fiscal year due to government cutbacks on medical and educational spending as well as a sluggish level of consumer confidence. Tom Kruger is now faced with trying to get a 60 day extension for his temporary line of credit in order to get the company to start making profits again. Problem Statement and Objectives To save the compan y, Tom Kruger needs to get an extension of 60 days on his temporary line of credit so that he can keep losses to a minimum and start generating more profits.At the same time, the economy is declining, competitors are setting low prices, and the government is cutting back on educational spending. Tom Kruger realizes that his plant is not being utilized at full capacity and most of the operations were being primarily financed on bank credit due to insufficient cash at hand. To address these problems, Tom Kruger is now planning on developing a new plant layout for efficiency as well as requesting a line of credit extension in order to finance debt. Situation Analysis PortersAs we can see from the case, the metal industry is not an attractive industry because of high competition with low bids, unstable economy, high bargaining power of buyers, and high start up costs. Since the buyers have very little suppliers to choose from to do business with, it can be concluded that suppliers have bargaining power in this industry. Buyers on the other hand only have power when they are specialized at what they do and offer a very low price. Substitution is quite limited due to different specifications offered by the major companies.Barriers to entry on the other hand are very high due to the huge amount of capital needed to get a foot in to the industry. All in all competition is very high in this industry and one must bid aggressively in order to gain a contract. However, this is hard when everyone is giving their lowest bid. SWOT Analysis Overall, for National Fabricators the weaknesses outweigh the strengths for due to its failure towards managing both finance and operations for approximately 10 years.The threats also outweigh the opportunities mostly due the intense competition whcih provides a negative trend towards profits for National Fabricators within the industry. Strengths: Ã¢â¬ ¢ The company has kept all of their old employees at the management level and this wil l allow them to keep stability while the company is under new ownership. Ã¢â¬ ¢ With a strong sales team being compenstated on a commission basis, this will isnpire each employ to work harder to make and close sales; which in the long run will increase company profits. National Fabricator has contracts from purchaser who are very unlikely to default on their payables, because majority of them come from the government. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Mr. Kruger, is well experienced for this position mostly due to his education and qualifications Weaknesses: Ã¢â¬ ¢ The company lacks in a sufficient inventory management and cost management system, which impacts profits. Ã¢â¬ ¢ With a deficiency of cash flow it forced the company to purchase materials from more costly warehouses other than Steelmills which is cheaper, which inreturn had increased manufacturing cost. Inproper scheduling and status reporting for work in progress caused a major ineffectiveness on plant capacity use, which had openly increased operating cost and reduced net profits. Opportunities: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Buying from the Steelmills will result in an increase of operating profit while costs are being decreased. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The company has the opportunity to grow in various markets and aquire new customers such as malls, hotels, offices, and motels not only in Canada but as well as the United States. Threats: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Tremendous price and wage competition in a recurring industry will lead to additional losses in profits. The highest risk for National Fabricators is the three companies which are dominating the industry that have the investment ability to control industry standards and requirements, which could lead to a decrease in profits. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Due to the long term contracts from the government it is impacting the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s cash flow in a negative trend. Historical Financial Analysis Ã¢â¬ ¢ Sales fluctuate due to the frequently cyclic nature of the industry but they aim to remain above 3 million annually. Ã¢â¬ ¢ In 1 993 cost of goods sold being 90% of sales and 9. 6% gross profit of sales.CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s lack of ability to manage inventory and lack of cash forced them to order from more expensive (12-15%more) warehouse than steel mills. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Net profit margin has been negative and no major patterns over the 9 year period on net profit since the trend of the industry is based mostly on economic factors, and whether or not they secure contracts. Due to high percentage of COGS they are only left with a net profit of $980 or 0. 024% of sales in 1993. As a result, if the company lower the material cost, the profit margin will improve drastically. Ã¢â¬ ¢ In 1984 current ratio went from 2. 07 to 1. 2 in 1993 which still is at an acceptable level, mainly due to the fact that operations were losing money in the past few years and there was a large cash drain on the company which resulted in the lowering of the current ratio. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Operations were being financed by National Fabricators bank credit which resulted in outstanding bank loans of $784,000; this could cause serious problems on their credit rating from the local bank due to the worse intereage coverage ratio. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Their average age of receivables in days is 78. 79 which had been steady around that number except in 1993 with 101 days mainly due to the holdback on large accounts.Since it is taking longer for them to convert accounts receivable into cash, the liquidity ability for the company is getting worse. | |1993 |1992 |1991 |1990 | |Liquidity | | | | | |Current Ratio |1. 12 |1. 34 |1. 32 |1. 58 | |Quick Ratio |0. 70 |0. 4 |0. 81 |0. 81 | |Profitability | | | | | |%Sales Growth |25. 7% |(17. 6%) |14. 4% | | |Gross Margin |9. 6% |10. 7% |7. 0% |7. 0% | |Net Margin |0. 02% |(1. 8%) |(5. 6%) |(6. %) | |Expenses/Sales |10. 0% |13. 3% |12. 8% |14. 1% | |ROE |0. 2% |(11. 4%) |(37. 8%) |(26. 3%) | |ROA |0. 04% |(4. 1%) |(12. 8%) |(11. 9%) | | | | | | | |Debt/Assets |75. % |64. 2% |66. 1% |54. 7% | |Debt/Equity |310. 4 % |179. 4% |195. 0% |121. 2% | Recommendation and Analysis We have chosen to recommend alternative #1, which will focus on improving their profits because they will be reducing the cost of materials from purchasing directly from Steel Mills rather than buying from the warehouses. By doing so this will help them convince Confederation Bank.Purchasing from producers rather than the warehouses will significantly save us an approximate 12-15%. This can help drastically with their profits being made. Another way to improve profit is by increasing profit margins and to do so they need to cut the cost of materials, which will be approximately 68%. By having cut material cost by 13. 5% National Fabricators will have $314,600, which is the amount they saved from the materials and it would increase their gross profits by that amount. Having laid out this plan everything looks very convincing but there are a couple set backs, which need to be worked out.Delivery is three months once purchased from the producers directly rather than one-day delivery from the warehouses, this may cause problems for daily operations. National Fabricators now has to pay off their suppliers in 30 days payments. It used to be 60-90 days but the change requires the need for more cash on hand. Nationals Fabricators will require the financial support of Confederation Bank in order to solve these set backs that will take place if they don't receive the help financial help they require. Being able to execute this plan we believe that National Fabricators would be able to convince the bank to extend the loan.This will benefit the company because not doing so will increase the financial problems. The reason being we didn't choose alternative 2 was because it was just too risky and way too costly especially with the risk at hand. Yes it was to better their sales but factor in that their attempts to migrate in the U. S. market also have the risk of not being successful. Also the number of other compani es already settled their will give a great competitive market and putting all this together would just show that there is much more risk at hand than reward. Exhibits and Analysis: Attached on next page
?Sarah Newsome 3-19-10 2nd Period Misanthrope Response The gossip session Moliere reveals in The Misanthrope among Acaste, Clitandre, and Celimene is that of a double satire. This conversation exemplifies MoliereÃ¢â¬â¢s satirical attitude towards the hypocrisy of individuals as well as a society which accepts, even forces, such falsehoods. He is equally critical of AlcasteÃ¢â¬â¢s impliant rectitude as he is of the other charactersÃ¢â¬â¢ sense of falsehood. However, MoliereÃ¢â¬â¢s greatest satire focuses on the society which instigates both extremes as he carefully crafts each character and their dialogue. Moliere develops the characters of Philante and Eliante with the perfect balance of honesty and forgiveness so the satirical focus is on the corrupt society rather than the characters. PhilanteÃ¢â¬â¢s character is one of exculpation and acceptance, especially involving his fellow men and his selfless friendship with Alceste. Nonetheless, he is not afraid to suggest the idea of moderation when speaking the brutal truth as he stands up to Alceste by saying. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦you have a way of bridling at whatever people say; whether they praise of blame, your angry spirit is equally unsatisfied to hear it. Ã¢â¬ Similarly, the observant Eliante notices the nature of Celimene as a -gossip queen and even comments on it aloud when she says to Philante, Ã¢â¬Å"The conversation takes itÃ¢â¬â¢s usual turn, and all our dear friendsÃ¢â¬â¢ ears will shortly burn. In such a simple sentence Moliere is able to speak through Eliante and Philante to express his condemnation of Celimene, Acaste, and Clitandre by admitting that dishonestly is constructed and accepted by society. Additionally, Moliere satirizes society by speaking through them in order to recognize that while not all people are hypocrites, society is the greatest threat as it accepts the false hypocrisies that do exist. Without the encouragement of suitors such as Acaste and Clitandre, Celimene would have less reason to degrade others. Likewise, without a society so accepting of falsehoods, Alceste would have less reason to be so cynical and disapproving of humanity. Therefore, although Moliere is equally critical of AcasteÃ¢â¬â¢s impliant rectitude as he is of the other charactersÃ¢â¬â¢ dominating acceptance of untruth, the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s greatest amount of satire is focused on the society when compels both extremes.
Gulper makes a choice by omitting suicide, when she finds out that Magna was forced too find a different wife. She keeps Masks flute under her Departs, which always reminds her of him, and his love to her, Outer / Inner Characterization Outer- There is not told about her apprentice, except a Ã¢â¬Å"DepartsÃ¢â¬ which is a cloth, that Indies girls wear for different accessions. Silver rings Inner- Very happy, homesick, proud, very happy for Ã¢â¬Å"MareÃ¢â¬ True love, Development Gulper, develops a lot of feelings for Magna, so strong that It ends in a tragic event.Her obsession Is stronger then life it Ã¢â¬Ës self. Her love for Magna is stronger the the lifework Its self. Magna Gluer's Husband Magna, is the husband too Gulper, Hess been married too her for seven years, He has a responsibility, in the family to move their generation , and his mother is aware of that they have been together for many years, and still there has not been any progress in making a baby, which results in Guilder's death. Outer/inner Characterization Outer- none Inner- Nervous, Afraid , lost in thoughts,Respect for family Ã¢â¬Å"motherÃ¢â¬ Daydreamer Submissive role, passive,emotionalMagna develop his own true feelings, when the newborn baby that was place on his lap, all Hess feels, ends in chaos, as he releases his true feeling in his heart for Gulper by yelling and screaming Ã¢â¬Å"take him away he smells of KeroseneÃ¢â¬ in the end, he docent really develop himself in a positive way but in a negative in the truth in his heart for Gulper love that been lost forever. Vivian Manna's friend Vivian is a friend of Magna and brings the message about Guilder's death, this news, brings a lot of pain into Manna's heart and soul.Magna and Vivian, has a story together since, they knew each other from past Ã¢â¬Å"the fairÃ¢â¬ which comes every seven years,Vivian, and Magna have a very close relationship as friends, since he has a flute, like Magna does. Outer-Small bundle on his sh oulder/flute, Haunches Inner- Feeling uneasy, unsure, feeling bad, Manna's Mother Actions The mother has full control over Magna and controls him, she is ashamed of the fact that Gulper is destitute of offspring and she seek a wife for him, that can bear her child by paying for it, she forgets about his feelings.Outer/inner Characterizations Inner-Demanding, Cold hearted. Careless Settings and Time Physical setting The event occurs in small village called Lackawanna that is located outside Champ which is in India, The village that Gulper lives in is on a high ground, and there is a road that curves and descends, steeply downhill. And from that point you can see Champ. The stores takes part different place outside Champ, realistic or unrealistic environment the events that take place in this story are all realistic.Environment details There are a lot of mountains, in this area, many steep curves and slopes, small villages around. Atmosphere It gives you the impression of that, they p eople live in a very hot, place, since India is a very tropical and hot environment. Characters influenced by the environment Guilder's parents, live in Champ that shows, they are city people, Magna and Gulper live outside the city of Champ in a small village.This shows that when young people get married in India, they get to live in some small hut outside the city, where they have too take care of them self s. Just like husband and wife. Social Setting Guilder's parents are part of the middle / uppercases, people, It seems like parents ho choose their children marriage, are about the same middle / upper-class people and when the ceremony is done, they Ã¢â¬Å"happy' married couple are being downgraded into living in a low/middle class environment.Where they are forced too live as husband and wife, with a task that is demand, and this task is having a baby. Time The story its self progress its self trough out 2 days, where Manna's friend comes by, about long past, 7 years back, we ge t window into the past of a married couple. In other words, we get a lot of history about this couple until present day, and the happening of a tragic event.Narrator / Point of view The story is being switched between, 3Ã¢â¬ ² rd person and 1 person, there is a story teller, and we get into the characters as they intact with each other trough out the story, and then we get back too the 3 Ã¢â¬Ërd person. There's a bit off mix, and a little bit of omniscient in the story teller. The main character of the story is Magna, since he is the one who gets influenced, trough out the whole story by all the people around him, Gurgle has a important part in this story, since she the one who affects Magna the most in the end.Composition / Plot Title Stench of Kerosene, 1965 The Title indicates, a very strong symbol of that very tragic and dramatic event can occur in point's off woman's/girls life or in the matter of fact, everyone's life, when people get into a point where there is no turning back, that means, Ã¢â¬Å"point of no returnÃ¢â¬ it can lead into a very horrific scenario, with actuality this title shows, we see it in the news, and we see it happen on TV, people setting them self on fire for reasons of desperate and urgent, matters, like no food, no work. Stench of Kerosene Gulper makes a choice by omitting suicide, when she finds out that Magna was forced too find a different wife. She keeps Masks flute under her Departs, which always reminds her of him, and his love to her, Outer / Inner Characterization Outer- There is not told about her apprentice, except a Ã¢â¬Å"DepartsÃ¢â¬ which is a cloth, that Indies girls wear for different accessions. Silver rings Inner- Very happy, homesick, proud, very happy for Ã¢â¬Å"MareÃ¢â¬ True love, Development Gulper, develops a lot of feelings for Magna, so strong that It ends in a tragic event.Her obsession Is stronger then life it Ã¢â¬Ës self. Her love for Magna is stronger the the lifework Its self. Magna Gluer's Husband Magna, is the husband too Gulper, Hess been married too her for seven years, He has a responsibility, in the family to move their generation , and his mother is aware of that they have been together for many years, and still there has not been any progress in making a baby, which results in Guilder's death. Outer/inner Characterization Outer- none Inner- Nervous, Afraid , lost in thoughts,Respect for family Ã¢â¬Å"motherÃ¢â¬ Daydreamer Submissive role, passive,emotionalMagna develop his own true feelings, when the newborn baby that was place on his lap, all Hess feels, ends in chaos, as he releases his true feeling in his heart for Gulper by yelling and screaming Ã¢â¬Å"take him away he smells of KeroseneÃ¢â¬ in the end, he docent really develop himself in a positive way but in a negative in the truth in his heart for Gulper love that been lost forever. Vivian Manna's friend Vivian is a friend of Magna and brings the message about Guilder's death, this news, brings a lot of pain into Manna's heart and soul.Magna and Vivian, has a story together since, they knew each other from past Ã¢â¬Å"the fairÃ¢â¬ which comes every seven years,Vivian, and Magna have a very close relationship as friends, since he has a flute, like Magna does. Outer-Small bundle on his sh oulder/flute, Haunches Inner- Feeling uneasy, unsure, feeling bad, Manna's Mother Actions The mother has full control over Magna and controls him, she is ashamed of the fact that Gulper is destitute of offspring and she seek a wife for him, that can bear her child by paying for it, she forgets about his feelings.Outer/inner Characterizations Inner-Demanding, Cold hearted. Careless Settings and Time Physical setting The event occurs in small village called Lackawanna that is located outside Champ which is in India, The village that Gulper lives in is on a high ground, and there is a road that curves and descends, steeply downhill. And from that point you can see Champ. The stores takes part different place outside Champ, realistic or unrealistic environment the events that take place in this story are all realistic.Environment details There are a lot of mountains, in this area, many steep curves and slopes, small villages around. Atmosphere It gives you the impression of that, they p eople live in a very hot, place, since India is a very tropical and hot environment. Characters influenced by the environment Guilder's parents, live in Champ that shows, they are city people, Magna and Gulper live outside the city of Champ in a small village.This shows that when young people get married in India, they get to live in some small hut outside the city, where they have too take care of them self s. Just like husband and wife. Social Setting Guilder's parents are part of the middle / uppercases, people, It seems like parents ho choose their children marriage, are about the same middle / upper-class people and when the ceremony is done, they Ã¢â¬Å"happy' married couple are being downgraded into living in a low/middle class environment.Where they are forced too live as husband and wife, with a task that is demand, and this task is having a baby. Time The story its self progress its self trough out 2 days, where Manna's friend comes by, about long past, 7 years back, we ge t window into the past of a married couple. In other words, we get a lot of history about this couple until present day, and the happening of a tragic event.Narrator / Point of view The story is being switched between, 3Ã¢â¬ ² rd person and 1 person, there is a story teller, and we get into the characters as they intact with each other trough out the story, and then we get back too the 3 Ã¢â¬Ërd person. There's a bit off mix, and a little bit of omniscient in the story teller. The main character of the story is Magna, since he is the one who gets influenced, trough out the whole story by all the people around him, Gurgle has a important part in this story, since she the one who affects Magna the most in the end.Composition / Plot Title Stench of Kerosene, 1965 The Title indicates, a very strong symbol of that very tragic and dramatic event can occur in point's off woman's/girls life or in the matter of fact, everyone's life, when people get into a point where there is no turning back, that means, Ã¢â¬Å"point of no returnÃ¢â¬ it can lead into a very horrific scenario, with actuality this title shows, we see it in the news, and we see it happen on TV, people setting them self on fire for reasons of desperate and urgent, matters, like no food, no work.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"Mother, I can not wait for school today!Ã¢â¬ At four years old I shouted this with excitement and glee, wonderful thoughts sprung into my mind and bounced around it like hot air in a balloon. Nothing could burst my bubble and I was determined to make a excellent impression on my new and caring teacher. It was my first day at primary school and I was to be introduced into reception. Miss Campsten, a young and friendly lady took my hand and led me into the strange yet curious room. I could see a dozen toddler faces gleaming up at me. It was all so inviting and fresh. Only then had I realised these were my new classmates. I scanned the room for a play mate and saw what I was sure was a sobbing boy. He moaned and groaned in the corner of the room behind a creaking wooden door. I shuffled slowly over and plucked up the courage to ask him Ã¢â¬Å"Will you play with me?Ã¢â¬ He twisted his head upwards to face me and smiled, I knew this was the start of a friendship which would seem to never end. Slowly but gradually he started to come out of his shell frequently talking to me like a shy tortoise. Playing in the deep and spacey sandpit was great. I used to pick up the sand and let it slide through my fingers acting as if it was a human sieve. Ben copied me and laughed at my stupid thinking in an amused matter. I did not really mind as long as it kept him happy. I was always confused about why he was so depressed that morning. The curiosity was biting at me like an impatient gnat. Miss Campsten explained, Ben, was suffering home sickness and had also been admitted that morning into school. At this age I did not believe this excuse, how could you be home sick at school? How could you not be excited?! I was buzzing like a bee around the classroom collecting worksheets and doing simple errands for Miss Campsten. It was overwhelming, I had no time to stop and think, learning numbers and the alphabet was challenging enough. Things were flowing nicely at school, new friends, great respect from my teacher and most of all a brilliant learning experience. The afternoon only just got better! We had taken a trip to the school gardens which led down a long, windy path to a greenhouse. The greenhouse was perfectly sound and stable with beautiful plants adorning it. The vast space inside was fascinating. Plant pots and crockery lay perfectly around the sides of the greenhouse on clear glass shelves. Ben and I screamed in delight! Delicately we picked an orchid to deliver as a gift to Miss Campsten, our teacher we were surprisingly fond with only after a few hours. The orchid embellished stunning features with its striking purple leaves and its long elegant stem. Perfection to a tee! Ã¢â¬Å"Home time children!Ã¢â¬ she said while clapping her hands enthusiastically. Oh no! The day had flown by in a flash. Ben and I exchanged grins of cheerful spirit because we had to explore so much more tomorrow.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
The body gathers information through five senses of sight, smell, hearing, taste and touch. However, in order to use the data or information that has been gathered by these senses one must constantly put the senses into constant use. After the body has collected information through the five senses it is taken to the brain, which in turn recognizes it, interprets it, understands it, responds to it and stores it. This is a continuous process which can be repeated even a thousand times in any given day. Newell (1990)] Information processing is responsible for the coordination and performance of the tasks that we carry out in any given day, from taking a shower to learning in school or participating in a sport. Discussion Within the field of cognitive psychology, information processing is the thinking and reasoning about mental processes, envisioning them, in the same way as a computer software runs on a computer machine. According to Ulric Neisser, who also goes as the father of the term Ã¢â¬Ëcognitive psychologyÃ¢â¬â¢ human beings can be compared to dynamic information processing systems with mental operations that are identical to those of computer machines and that can be described in computational terms. [Neisser, 1967] The mind is the software while the brain is the hardware. The human mind processes information through the application of logical rules and strategies, that like a computer, the human mind has got a limited capacity for the amount and even the nature of information it can process, and that just as the computer can be made to process more information through the change or overhaul of its hardware and software, learners can become great thinkers if changes can be made in their brains through the use of authentic rules and strategies of learning. [Hetherington & Parke, 199] According to Atkinson and Shriffin in their Ã¢â¬Ëstage theoryÃ¢â¬â¢ model, the human memory processes and stores information in three stages. Information is processed in a serial and discontinuous manner as it transits from one stage to the other. [Atkinson & Shriffin, 1968] Craik and Lockhart in their Ã¢â¬Ëlevels-of-processingÃ¢â¬â¢ theory posit that learners make use of various levels of elaboration as they process information. This is achieved through a succession of levels beginning from perception, through attention, to labeling, and lastly meaning. Craik & Lockhart, 1972] Another theory posits that information is processed simultaneously by several different parts of memory system as opposed to sequential processing. [Goleman, 1995] Lastly, Rumelhart and McClelland in their Ã¢â¬ËconnectionicÃ¢â¬â¢ model propose that information is stored in multiple locations in the form of network connections in the brain. It is grounded on the wisdom that the more connected an idea is the more the chances of it to be remembered. Rumelhart & McClelland, 1986; Scientific American, 1999] In a learning situation, the measure of receiving and organizing information, remembering it, and expressing it will obviously differ from one learner to the other. There will always be discrepancies in reading, writing, comprehension, and reasoning among the learners. Those learners who experiences difficulties in organizing, remembering, and expressing information will definitely experience difficulties in reading, writing, comprehension, and reasoning. Such learners are considered as having learning disabilities: they tend to experience difficulties in the acquisition and use of listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning or mathematical abilities. They face difficulties in learning new skills, they have poor memory, and they tend to confuse basic words, experience difficulties in connecting letters and sounds, among other difficulties. Lerner (2000)] Since the process of information gathering occurs through the application of logical rules and strategies learners without disabilities are bound to organize, remember, and express information with great ease than those with disabilities. Learners with disabilities will experience difficulties in making use of various levels of elaboration as Craik and Lockhart reasons. They will experience snags in transferring information from one stage to another. In a nutshell the process of information processing is complex and therefore it requires proper learning strategies to make it a success. It requires the best learning strategies that are tied to the needs and interests of students and that are based on varied types of learning styles to enhance maximum learning. [Ekwensi et al, 2006] For instance, before the process of learning begins, a teacher should always aim at gaining the learners attention by using cues to signal when you are ready to begin and keep moving around the class while using voice variations. Always remember to bring to the mind of the learners prior learned content that is relevant to present content. This can be done through a brief discussion or a brief question and answer session aimed at forming a link with the present lesson content. This should be followed by a brief discussion of the main points of what is about to be learned. Learners may also be provided with handouts to get a deeper glimpse of the content. The teaching/learning process should now progress from what is already known to what is not known, from simple to complex. Bransford et al, 2000] The teacher should present the content in chunks while giving the learners opportunities to connect new information to information already known. In order to enhance maximum retaining of the learned content the teacher should also show the learners coding tips, e. g. , through the use of acronyms, simple songs, construction of silly sentences using the first letter of each word in the list and mental imagery techniq ues such as the keyword method. The teacher should also provide repetitive teaching and learning: by stating important points many times using different methods; this helps to build Short Term Memory (STM). [Miller (1956)] Include item on each dayÃ¢â¬â¢s lesson from previous lesson or even periodically review previously learned skills for building Long Term Memory (LTM). The teacher should also provide enough opportunities for learning and over-learning of important concepts and skills; methods such as daily drills may be applied for arithmetic facts. Huitt (2003)] The teacher should aim at building both STM and LTM. The STM will help to increase the amount of time the learners pay attention to external stimulus and form some meaning out of it. According to Miller (1956) individuals can process up to 7 plus or negative units at any given time, therefore the teacher should aim at helping the learners to identify the most important information to learn at any given time. This can be achieved through proper organiza tion and repetition. To achieve organization the concept of chunking can be applied whereby information will be presented in bits representing units that can be easily remembered. To achieve repetition, the teacher should try to making the learners repeat what they have learned, especially after some time Ã¢â¬â few minutes (when forgetting begins). The process of learning should also be made sequential, relevant, and transitional. On the other hand, the LTM helps in the recalling of information learned long time ago particularly when such information is arranged and organized using the declarative, procedural, and imagery structures. The declarative memory will help in storing information about things that are talked about in classroom; [Stillings et al, 1987] the procedural memory will store information that touches on ways of doing things practically while the imagery memory will store information inform of images. This program helps to build Ã¢â¬Ëhigher-order-thinkingÃ¢â¬â¢ and self esteem. In order to build LTM the teacher should apply the Ã¢â¬ËDirect InstructionÃ¢â¬â¢ method of teaching that provides constant interaction between the students and the teacher. Nonetheless, teachers should make sure that they teach small amount of material in sequential steps, they should make it possible for the learners to use as many of their senses as it is practically possible and that the content material should seek to build on, and enhance the learnersÃ¢â¬â¢ prior knowledge. The teacher should also make the instructional language more simple but not the content by reinforcing on the main ideas through paraphrasing, repeating, and the use of stimulating learning aids such as charts, maps, and pictures. If possible, the use of technology should be encouraged as learners have been noted to feel free and productive particularly when they are working independently in front of a computer, rather than in crowded classrooms. [Singleton, & Terrill, 1995/96] Conclusions In order to address information processing problems among learners with disabilities, a teacher should understand the common difficulties that they face so as to be able to employ the appropriate learning strategies. Learners with disabilities they experience the inability to manage their time well, they have spelling problems, they cannot follow if the teacher speaks too fast, they are slow readers, they have difficulties in recalling mathematical symbols, and sometimes they may portray impulsive behavior. This calls for a lot of patience on the part of the teacher when dealing with them. To achieve this, the teacher should watch, listen and talk to the learners to establish their strengths and weaknesses, and to use interest-arousing stimulus in the instructional process because learners are more likely to be attentive when the teacher uses a stimulus
6Case 5-2: Rondot Automotive Name: Lovee Sachdeva, Bin Wen, Matthew Miles, Ryan Buxbaum ,Yuguang Wang, Shaoying Lu. Group: 3 Date: 2/22/2013 Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Situation: * Glenn Northcott is the purchasing planner at Rondot Automobile in Jackson, Mississippi. The company is a wholly owned subsidiary of Rondot Worldwide, a leading global designer and manufacturer of electrical and electronic components. Note: You are Glenn) * Responsible for evaluation the outsourcing opportunity * Meet with Terry Gibson and purchasing manager to decide whether or not to take actions on outsourcing * Glenn had been approached by Greven E-Coating willing to provide electro coating services to Rondot Automobile * Goals of decision making: Reducing the total costs while maintaining and minimizing the risks from any changes made * Considerable global competition under severe cost pressure * Cust omerÃ¢â¬â¢s price reduction pressure expectancies from global competition * Total Sales and employment at the Jackson plant had steadily declined * Company is under significant pressure on cost reduction. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s current priority is to reduce operation costs * Rondot is a wholly owned subsidiary of Rondot Worldwide, a leading global designer and manufacturer of electrical and electronic components. Rondot Automotive operated 85 plants in 25 countries. The purchasing organization at Rondot automotive had a hybrid structure and the Jackson plantÃ¢â¬â¢s purchasing department consisted of four people, including two buyers, a planner (Glen) and Terry Gibson. * Schedule with the purchasing manager, Terry Gibson, and the plant manager, Dick Taylor in one week, and both of them are under significant pressure to reduce costs at Jackson plant. * Greven E-Coating outsourcing opportunity * Greven E-Coating Company uses a system whereby a DC electrical charge is applied to a met al part immersed in a bath of oppositely charged paint particles. * Considered more cost efficient compared to traditional wet paint systems * Samples provided from Greven E-Coating Company Tests results: 5/6 of families of housings could be converted to e-coaring using Greven at a cost of 15 cents each * Parts for five of the six represents 60% of the Jackson PlantÃ¢â¬â¢s volume * Failure because of different methods of adhesion of a magnet to the housing. Hot Ã¢â¬âbond adhesion process fits e-coating while cold-bond adhesion process does not fit e-coating system Current situation: * Total sales and employment at the Jackson plant had steadily declined over the past five years. * The number of employees at the plant had dropped from 1450 to 600 and plant management was under pressure to lower costs and regain market share. * Glenn has the option to do outsourcing on cleaning and painting work to Greven E-Coating. Glenn needs to come up with an ideal recommendation on how to re duce the cost and propose that to Terry Gibson and Dick Taylor. * The cleaning and wet painting had been installed 17 years prior and undergone a number of upgrades, and the current painting method costs 25 cents for each housing. (There are six parts in a housing family) BASIC ISSUES 1. Company to take decision on insourcing or outsourcing 2. Higher costs related to painting & cleaning 3. Lack of advanced technology to compete in cost reduction for a lower price 4. A decision to make, once made, is often difficult to reserve. If Rondot Automobile decides to make agreements on e-coating system, The plant needs to convert 100% hot-bond adhesion system 5.Total cost of converting 40% of cold-bond adhesion system to the total cost savings: Long-Term estimation, not short term 6. Whether the use of e-coating will lead to sole source dependency: Is the e-coating system a common painting method in market? 7. The durability of e-coating VS. of traditional coating system 8. Cost benefits ana lysis on the process 9. Inexperienced decision making on outsourcing opportunity Tasks: * What does Richard Kaplan do? Richard needs to clarify and calculate the total cost savings and the cost of converting from cold-bond adhesion to hot-bond adhesion * 25 Cents * 6 = $1. 50 * 15 Cents * 6 = $0. 90 * Does the difference $0. 60 can cover the conversion from traditional wet coating system to e-coating system? The durability and re-paint rate is also needed to consider: If the wet-coating system has durability of 10 years while e-coating repaint rate is 8 years, The total cost of conversion from traditional wet-coating system to e-coating system will increase significantly * What are alternatives? * Negotiate with Greven E-Coating for a lower costs * Conduct a careful research on both advantages and disadvantages of E-coating system * Search for more options in potential sources and substitute items other than traditional wet-painting and e-coating * The challenge of maintaining long- term technological and economic viability for the possible 100% hot-bond adhesion system * The revision of policy of supplier selection Criteria of standardization and policies regarding the choosing of suppliers * An understanding of the market conditions in order to set appropriate expectations for the price provided from Greven E- Coating * Analyze data collected for cost and technical information * Identify the root causes of sales decline. If the sales revenue can be improved, the company can maintain the current painting process to avoid future external risks * * Determine that is the cold-bond adhesion system a necessary facility for the particular family to manufacture any specified electrical and electronic components * Dose this outsourcing plan fit the business goals and objectives? * What does the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s top management think about the Jackson plantÃ¢â¬â¢s outsourcing plan? * Which level of management makes a final decision on outsourcing? Talk to manufacturin g manager and clarify more information about cold-bond adhesion * Talk to the manager in the family that uses cold-bond adhesion system. Clarify the reason why the family of housing choose to use cold-bond adhesion * Identify and estimate total cost to uninstall and setup the new bond system if the method of adhering a magnet to the housing is not mandatory SUGGESTED QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION; 1. How to make analysis of the cost of switching current painting process versus the cost of setting up a painting process? What kinds of training should be provided due to the new standards of temperature, air and etc? 2. If the result of outsourcing is rejected, is the subcontracting an alternative for the company?What are the benefits and risks of using reverse auctions for specialized OEM parts? 3. What risk management and contractual steps are necessary before moving company owned tooling to a new supplier? 4. What are the benefits and risks of outsourcing? Actions: * Determination of deta iled function & mandatory of Cold-Bond Adhesion system * Meet with both Manufacturing manager and the family manager in Jackson Plant. * Determine the total costs of uninstallation the current cold-bond adhesion system and the installation of hot-bond adhesion system * Total Cost Savings calculation * Identify the cost savings potential after the modification. With the newly modified standards, communicate with Greven E-Coating and analyze the decision based on the feedbacks from the supplier. * Determine whether the total cost savings can cover the conversion cost from cold-bond adhesion system to hot-bond system * Estimate the future necessity and future technological tendency of replacing traditional wet paint to E-Coating. If the company is going to replace the traditional wet painting in the future anyway, the cost of conversion can be ignored. * Talk with Betty McKinley again and determine the detailed cost of holding two more weeks of inventory * Make agreements on price and quantity, meanwhile negotiate the term of warranty and quality assurance with Greven E-Coating Results: If accept outsourcing opportunity * Cost savings:25-15-3=7 cents on each housing * Add another two weeks worth of inventory * Lower labor and material costs * Product price reductions i. e. ability to offer reduced price to customers. * Become more competitive and there will be a gradual increase in the profit and market share. * If not accepting outsourcing opportunity (i. e.. using the earlier system ) * No savings- no price reductions * Reduce risk for investment * Extra cost in upgrading the system * Spending on more labor in this operation which results in additional costs * May result in lower operating time * Extra time for testing upgraded system. If total cost savings is greater than the costs of uninstallation of Cold-bond adhesion + Installation of hot-bond adhesion + extra inventory carrying costs: * Prepare the agreements and contract documentation on outsourcing deci sion with Greven E-Coating * The contract content with Greven E-Coating tends to be short-term to avoid sole-source dependency situation. Reach out lower priced suppliers while maintain the quality assurance * If total cost savings is equal to or less than the costs of uninstallation of Cold-bond adhesion + Installation of hot-bond adhesion + extra inventory carrying costs: * Determine the importance of common tendency of using E-coating for other manufacturing companies.If the E-coating is not mandatory in the future market, reject the outsourcing plan to avoid extra possible risks * Find out other alternative ways to reduce total costs, such as reduction of labor costs, manufacturing overhead or the replacement of cost-efficient equipment or facilities Priorities: * Maintain cost reduction at the Jackson plant. * Increase sales volume and high market share. * Ensure a successful outsourcing decision. * Maintain companyÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation-image for reliability. Conclusion: The pai nting process should be outsourced in order to achieve significant cost savings. Ensure supplier selection process is properly done, forecast and mitigate against outsourcing inherent risks and ensure quality standard is met at all times. These will help in achieving a successful outsourcing agreement.
Friday, September 27, 2019
Civil Proceedings - John Tobin and the Department of Industrial Accidents - Assignment Example The plaintiff seeks that his case should be remanded to a lower judge so that more evidence can be gathered related to the statute applicable to his case. In addition, he seeks to prove that he is entitled to receive social security benefits and employee pension despite being inactive for two years in the labour market. The employees appeal was submitted in and heard by a single judge in the Appeals Court. The Appeals Court upheld the orders of the reviewing board of the Department of Industrial Accidents. His request that this issue should be remanded to a lower judge for further consideration of evidence and findings stands rejected. Furthermore, the Court rejected the employees contention based on the Federal Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) (CASE). John Tobin started working as the custodian of Stoughton Police department in 1978. In 1988, he injured his shoulder while cleaning an overhead light fixture. Consequently, surgical procedures were performed on his shoulder; He received two payments out of the workers' compensation benefit on 15th October 1988 and 29th October 1991. John Tobin had been unemployed for two years and over the age of sixty-five by 29th October 1991 when he received the second payment. The administrative judge passed an order that John Tobin is not entitled to receive employee benefits. He appealed against the order to the reviewing board but two out of the three judges on board affirmed the orders passed by the administrative judge. The issues relate to whether John Tobin is entitled to receive employee benefits as he is above sixty-five years of age and has been out of labour market for over two years. Additionally, if he is entitled to receive compensation payments as he was injured prior to the amendment in the General Law, which laid down certain restrictions on compensation payments. The orders of the reviewing board were affirmed so they won this case. The Appeals Court rejected the employees argue that the General Laws c. 152, Ã § 35 are in contravention of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution and the Declaration of the Rights of the Massachusetts Constitution.
English reading and writing - Essay Example At first, his paranoia gives him the irrational fear of the vulture's eye which brings him the urge to kill the old man. Being the first story I have read which is a psychological thriller and horror story at the same time, I become very much interested and involved with the story. I can say that this is one of the best stories of murder I have ever read as it explores how people with psychological disorders think and why they do the things that they do. In the end, the Tell Tale Heart also acknowledges the conscience within man by showing how the relentless heartbeat of the old man bothers the murderer. It simply portrays that even though the murderer become greatly satisfied because he was able to rid himself of the object of his fear, he still has this innate longing to do what is right as dictated by his conscience. With the Tell Tale Heart, Edgar Allan Poe is highly successful in affecting and influencing readers like me. On the other hand, The Cask of Amontillado is a more intricate and complicated plot of murder. I can say that Edgar Allan Poe is able to devise and show the perfect plot for murder. As opposed to The Tell Tale Heart which tackles paranoia and guilt, the main theme of the story is revenge.
Critiq a research methadology - Essay Example Some studies showed the positive effects of acupuncture towards these disorders, a considerable number of reports also showed that there is no difference between those subjected to auricular acupuncture and those in controlled studies. Since acupuncture is a procedure, putting it into a clinical test would entail that meticulous guidelines be followed. These procedural guidelines stem from the methodical understanding of the nature of acupuncture and of the character of drugs used. Hence this study, aside from dealing with the specific controlling factors of acupuncture also takes into consideration factors that are non-specific such as the use of questionnaires, monitoring of drug use and other aspects that would result to confuse the findings. This study was conducted using a randomized clinical trial aiming to determine if auricular acupuncture has significant and positive results towards the treatment of drug dependence in methadone-maintained addicts. This specific patient popul ation was opted for the use of addition to cocaine is a grave problem in methadone maintenance programs or MMPs. II. The Methods and Methodology Used in the Study A Randomized Controlled Trial of Auricular Acupuncture for Cocaine Dependence (Avants, et. al., 2000) Participant Selection: Entrance and Discontinuation Criteria The inclusion criteria for the research participants are the following: 1. They should be at least 18 years of age 2. They should be enrolled in methadone maintenance programs (MMPs) with a stable dose of methadone. 3. They should be able to meet the criteria for cocaine used as established by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV25 4. They should be able to show recent cocaine use: a. able to provide a cocaine-positive urine sample (at the time of screening) b. able to provide a detailed report of cocaine use (week before the screening) c. able to provide a cocaine positive urine sample (within two weeks before screening) The exclusion criteria for the re search participants are the following: 1. They should not be dependent to other substance other than cocaine, nicotine or opiates 2. They should not undergo any current treatment for cocaine dependence They should not have any current use of psychotropic medication (except when they are maintained in a regimen for this specific medication for 90 days) 3. They should not have previous acupuncture treatment for a period of 30 days They should not manifest suicidal nor psychotic status The discontinuation* criteria for the research participants are the following 1. Failure to attend 3 of first 8 sessions 2. Failure to attend less than session per week * Those who discontinued the research were termed as noncompleters Figure 1. The flow and progress of patients and their corresponding treatments throughout the trial (Avants, et. al., 2000). Randomization A computer-based randomization procedure was conducted by a staff member after the completion of the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s screening as wel l as intake interviews. The randomization procedure was used in order to set of scales for the participants on conditions such as a) sex; b) race; and c) HIV status. During the orientation, patients were kept abreast of their treatment assignments through a prescribed standardized script. Patients
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Spectral graph theory - Research Paper Example In this paper I will examine the facts and the new developments of graph theory with the use of the theoretical proofs laid forward by FermatÃ¢â¬â¢s Little Theorem. In addition, I will also examine Nielson-SchreierÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view as far as the subject is concerned (Bonchev, Danail and Rouvray, 17). I will also discuss the conceptÃ¢â¬â¢s new application to DNA arrangement and computer network security and its important application when it comes to the vertex cover graphs (Beineke, Lowell and Robin 69). There is also the use of edge color and matching in development of vertex colouring and this has well been explained in y work. Graph theory is very fast gaining merits in the field of mathematics as a result of its application in other different fields such as computer science, biochemistry, and biotechnology (CvetkovicÃ & DragosÃÅ', 21). This field make use important concept that are procedures related to a part of graph theory referred to as matching which in turn its results are used to prove DilworthÃ¢â¬â¢s series disintegration theorem (Bonchev, Danail and Rouvray, 196). One of the most ackn owledged field in graph theory is matching. Matching give an explanation that there is a set of left and right co-set agent of a subgroup and this can be seen in a finite group which in turn plays a viatl role in proving DharwadkerÃ¢â¬â¢s four-color theorem. In addition to this prove, there was also proof of existence of a subset of real numbers that could not be measured going with the views of Lebesgue. What we realize is that the theorem could also be proofed with the use of discrete mathematics (Beineke , Lowell and Robin 95). A graph is said to be a cluster of dots linked together by lines and below is an example of such graph depicting the linked dots. However, this definition is not accurate enough to be used in mathematical arguments. In a conventional way a graph is suppose to be depicted as a pair of sets (V, E) in which V represents a
Business Sustainability - Research Paper Example To determine the extent in which the SME owners in Auburn city should support the use of modern digital infrastructure, a research interview was conducted to a total of ten (10) SME business owners in Auburn city. In line with this, the research findings show that the research interviewees are not aware of how the NBN can intervene and help them improve the quality and accessibility of their corporate websites. Despite the limitation in the research intervieweesÃ¢â¬â¢ knowledge with regards to the use of the fixed wireless network, the next-generation satellite, and the optic fiber network, most of the research interviewees show the positive sign when it comes to supporting the use of modern digital infrastructure.Ã The Broadband, Communication and Digital Economy (DBCDE) is one of the Federal Government departments in Australia that has been appointed to be responsible throughout the development of its digital economy (CB Online, 2013). To increase the chances wherein the gener al public will continuously have a good experience when using digital technology, DBCDE continuously develop and enhance not only the existing digital infrastructure in Australia but also promote the facilitation of its future innovation and set up necessary regulatory framework particularly with regards to the service and use of information and communication technology (Australian Government - Department of Communications, 2013; CB Online, 2013). On the other hand, the National Broadband Network (NBN) is Ã¢â¬Å"the next-generation broadband network designed for AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s future needsÃ¢â¬ (Australian Government - Department of Broadband, Communications and Digital Economy, 2013). It means that through the business intervention of the NBN, it is possible for Australia to come up with a more reliable and faster broadband access to the local residents and the businesses.As of May 2013, NBN was able to construct an optic fiber network in Armidale, Aspley, Bacchus Marsh, Brun swick, Blacktown, Coffs Harbour, Crace, Deloraine, George Town, Gosford, Hobart, Kiama, Kingston Beach, Launceston, Midway Point, Scottsdale, Smithton, Sorell, South Morang, St Helens, Toowoomba, Townsville, Triabunna, and Willunga whereas the fixed wireless network is made available in Armidale, Ballarat, Darwin, Geraldton, Tamworth, and Toowoomba (Australian Government Ã¢â¬â Department of Broadband, Communications and Digital Economy, 2013). Unfortunately, these two (2) major digital technology infrastructures are not much readily available in Auburn city.Ã
Public Relation Plan - Assignment Example By November 2005 it had 443 supermarkets and 287 convenience stores. For decades this chain of stores was number one in the UK market. It lost its position against TESCO in 1995. It reached to third position behind Wal-Mart owned ASDA in 2003. The reasons for this were better strategies adopted by the other two companies than Sainsbury, leadership and customer satisfaction. In today's scenario one's daily life is full of examples of services. When one think about service, service marketing triangle or rather pyramid comes to his mind, which has following components in it. The first part of the paper covers the situation analysis for Sainsbury. It includes competitor analysis and SWOT analysis. These two factors are important for any marketing, media or publicity decisions. This self-analysis and market analysis gives an opportunity to list all the factors important for the organisation. A good analysis throws light on various issues and topics, which can be utilised successfully for the publicity purpose. The next section deals with the target public section. This group deals with the fraternity group towards which the publicity plan will be targeted. According to this target group the publicity plan will have message, mode and timing of communication. Client strategy includes the message, objectives and other details of publicity plan. At the end the budget related to the publicity plan would be discussed. II. Situation Analysis Sainsbury has faced various marketing conditions. One time leader had reached to third position in the market. Any strategy to make a new brand is easier as compared to re-establishing any brand. The media group has not been favourable for Sainsbury till 2005. This is a strong influencer for all readers and audience. The current favourable scenario from the media group is one of the good signs for Sainsbury. Sainsbury can in cash this opportunity along with other strategies. II.i. Competitor Analysis As per the news on Guardian appeared on March 2006, the big four - TESCO, ASDA, Sainsbury's and Morrisons account for nearly 75% of the 95bn UK grocery market. The main competitors for Sainsbury are TESCO and ASDA. These two chains of stores are leading Sainsbury. TESCO TESCO has more than 30% market share of UK grocery market. It is more than double of its nearest competitor ASDA.TESCO is market leader in UK.240, 000 people are working for TESCO. "Tesco now has 100 Extra hypermarkets, 446 superstores, 160 Metro stores, 546 Express neighbourhood stores, and "over 500 other fascia-ed stores not judged worthy of the Tesco name but that still bring in
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Scenario Analysis - Essay Example Analyzing the scenario, this paper will further aim at recommending remedial strategies by implementing a decision-making tool suitable for resolving the issue. Critical Analysis of the Scenario The given particular scenario exemplifies a care unit comprising thirty-two bed facilities, which include around 15 registered nurses (RNs) and 22 licensed practical nurses (LPNs). Accordingly, the newly hired nursing unit manager is charged with the responsibility of staffing, caring and evaluating operations. It has been identified in this regard that the staff members are facing excessive workload pressure due to ineffective planning and management. There is also a mixture of part-time, full-time and casual staffing in the unit of the care facility, creating perplexities and hurdles in the proper execution of operations. The staff members of the care unit are observed to be unhappy due to workload pressure. Moreover, it is also recognized that the former RN, who was appointed before the ne wly hired nursing unit manager, resigned due to non-cooperation received from other staff members. An insight into the scenario depicts that these issues were the consequence of inadequate pay in accordance with the workload imposed upon the unit manager. Decision-making Tool As per the scenario, it has been recognized that there are various issues affecting the smooth operations and working environment of the care facility of the pediatric unit. In this respect, the newly hired nursing unit manager, on identifying these issues, should adopt a decision-making tool with the objective of devising appropriate plans and strategies so that activities of staff members and other operations are managed in an appropriate fashion. In the present scenario, advancement in the technological field and knowledge in nursing have raised complexities, on the basis of which nurses are required to be more competent and knowledgeable. The major activity of the nursing unit manager is to seek that staff members execute their operations according to the requirement of situations and in accordance with the goals of the care facility. The nursing unit manager is also entrusted with the job to ensure that proper medication and services are offered to patients (Cherie & Gebrekidan, 2005). In this context, with the assigned tasks and responsibilities along with numerous issues in the pediatric unit of the care facility, the nursing unit manager can be suggested the decision-making tool of decision ladder. The nursing unit manager, with the assistance of the decision-making tool, will be facilitated with the opportunity of recognizing issues, assessing possible solutions and identifying alternative ways on the basis of which these issues can be resolved. This decision-making tool postulates a systematic procedure to resolve a particular issue as that witnessed in the given scenario. The procedure can be identified as a multidirectional and multistep process, which includes situational ana lysis, developing alternatives, examining the selected alternatives and implementing appropriate plans as suited for the resolution of the issue identified. The decision-making tool will assist the newly hired nursing manager in recognizing problems in the operations of the unit, which include patient care and requirement, work intensity and payment structure, etc.
Corporate finace - Essay Example Online Travel Portal Limited used to be the former name of Opodo Limited prior to July 2001. It is a subsidiary of Amadeus IT Holding, South Africa. However, it is based in London, UK and was incorporated in the year 2000. The Financial Times reported that Permira Advisers Ltd. and AXA Private Equity seem to join hands together for the purpose of buying Opodo Limited from Amadeus IT Holding SA at the cost of Ã¢â ¬500 million that is equal to USD 682.5 million. The prime objective of the planned buyout is to develop the best online booking services provider through merging the Opodo Limited with the eFreame and Go Voyages SA. Also, the American Carlyle Group has shown some intend to buy Opodo limited due to which the bids for Opodo exceeded Ã¢â ¬400 million since any bid would probably be challenged by Carlyle Group. Some sources reported that the Permira would bid through Vacaciones eDreams, S.L. where as the Axa would be bidding through Go Voyages SA. The process of this sale wi ll be handled by the JPMorgan Chase. Permira and Axa have been bidding against each other for the acquisition of medium sized European web based travel agencies prior to joining together so as to acquire Opodo Limited. In the last year, Permira defeated Axa so as to acquire eDreams-Spanish online agency where as the Axa won against Permira for the acquisition of Go Voyages. After which they together planned to develop a giant European agency through merging the Opodo Limited, after its acquisition if their bid for it is successful, with the previously acquired eDreams and Go Voyages. At present, the Amadeus IT Holding owns the Opodo Limited and this business venture involves only 4 % of their entire business turnover. Financial Performance Indicators Financial performance indicators for the three companies are provided below. Chart 1: Annual Sales Permira Advisers Ltd for the Last 5 Years in Million USD. The chart 1 given above provides interesting information about the annual sales of the Permira Advisers Ltd that enables us to apprehend the performance of the company before the acquisition of OPODO Limited. Chart 2: Annual Sales AXA Private Equity for the Last 5 Years in Million USD. The chart 2 given above provides interesting information about the annual sales of the AXA Private Equity that enables us to apprehend the performance of the company before the acquisition of OPODO Limited. Chart 3: Annual Sales OPODO Limited for the Last 5 Years in Million USD. The chart provides interesting information about the annual sales of the OPODO Limited that enables us to apprehend the performance of the company before its acquisition. Due to the above performance of Opodo, other companies are interested towards its acquisition. Why Are Mergers & Acquisitions Interesting? The most important factor for the mergers and acquisitions is the existence of "synergies" that enables the two companies to operate more efficiently together in comparison to be working individually . Nevertheless in some cases, organization may obtain tax benefits from a merger or acquisition. 'Horizontal' mergers that take place between companies functioning in the same industry at the same production level may also be instigated through the wish for greater market power, as in the current case of OPODO acquisition by the Permira and AXA (being merged together). Also,
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Research Paper Example Our subject belongs to the last stage, teenager. The physical size is normal for the Asian race. His vital signs are presumed normal since he was dancing with his friends at the park. Their group is composed of dance enthusiasts. I cannot assume about his organ development. But looking at his physically, nothing seemed to be abnormal. He dances well and this shows that his vision and hearing are refined. The subjectÃ¢â¬â¢s developmental stage showed his capability to function normally. PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s Stages of Cognitive Development The Swiss biologist and psychologist Jean Piaget observed his children and in the end developed a four-stage model of how the mind processes new information met. He speculated that children improve through 4 stages and they all do in the same order. The four stages of PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s cognitive development include sensorimotor stage, preoperational stage, concrete operations, and formal operations. Our subject belongs to the formal operations stage which includes ages 11 to 15. The cognition is in its final form. Our subject no longer needs concrete objects to make reasonable and logical judgments. He is already competent of hypothetical and deductive reasoning.
Can there be peace in the Middle East based on the history of the area - Research Paper Example Can peace ever be established there? There are initiatives under way, but the history of the region has shown that peace is elusive and fragile. There is always hope for a lasting agreement, and the world watches and waits for that moment to arrive. This paper discusses the events of the past, the problems, the initiatives, and the hope. Peace Plan for the Middle East Hot Bed of History The Middle East encompasses Western Asia and North Africa. It is arid and hot. Sometimes called the Near East, it has many rivers and irrigation channels to feed its agriculture. Its Persian Gulf contains one of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s most important assets: crude oil deposits. It has historically been a hot bed of political and religious turmoil. The origins of that turmoil include a crowded geography, differing political philosophies, economic pressures, and perhaps most importantly, division over religious claims to an area which has provided the historical origins of three leading world religions: Isla m, Judaism and Christianity. All three claim Jerusalem and surrounding Ã¢â¬Å"Holy LandÃ¢â¬ (modern Palestine) as home to their religious heritage. Culture of Combat The primary combatants for the Holy Land today are the Arabs and Israelis. But it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t always that way. ... A century later, the Islamic leader, Saladin, who had Egypt under his control, led Islam in a holy war (Ã¢â¬Å"jihad)Ã¢â¬ against Christians, recapturing Jerusalem in 1187. So the area is known for its years of strife. But it was the Israel community which became the latter day opposition for the Arabs, and todayÃ¢â¬â¢s conflict has become the focal point of Middle East politics and mutual aggression. Modern Day Conflict Today, the Jews and Arabs recognize that they are both losing this battle which has recently escalated between them. As Goldschmidt pointed out, things got hot during World War I. He said, Ã¢â¬Å"The duration and intensity of what we now call the Arab-Israeli conflict were due to the rise of nationalism in modern times" (Goldschmidt, 1999, p.231). Strangely enough, there is evidence that these two long-time adversaries have plans to try once again for peace in the region. That is a first step toward stability in an area that has rarely experienced it throughout all of history. Plan for improvement in relations Krause and Van Evera (2009) suggest several actions which could improve relations between the U.S. and the Middle East. Two-way dialogue with respect for the traditions of the Muslim world should replace one-way oratory. The use of facts over hyperbole and propaganda will better guide discussion. The dialogue should be conducted in an air of peace and desire for mutual understanding, without the background of conflict generated primarily by al-Qaeda around the world. The United States should confront and contest al-Qaeda at every opportunity and perhaps seek the assistance of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) which could apply pressure to combative governments. Initiatives begun Conflict in the Middle East in recent years has focused on the
Monday, September 23, 2019
The current learning methods and advantages of ICT in subject-based classes - Essay Example Students themselves find it convenient to use ICT to learn rather than traditionally attending lessons. Moreover, developments in ICT like the virtual field trip are also highly appreciated and are enhancing the learning of students in subject based lessons. Information Technology is a revolution of contemporary times. It is a concept, a term which has changed the way this world functions and integrates itself into one unit. Defining information technology is a complex task because it encompasses so many things and its scope is so huge that it is difficult to simplify and state. If we try to define information technology in a very comprehensive and compact way, we can say that it is concerned with everything regarding computer-based information systems, especially with the software and hardware that are used to help them function. The software applications and computer hardware that are used to support all these computer systems form a major part of this study. Moreover, whether we think of the study, their design, their further development, the implementation and use, them being support systems in many fields or their effective management, it all lies in the term information technology. Information is the most valuable intangible asset that can be possessed by an individual, a team or a big corporation. Information technology is that revolution in science which allows for this information to be safely kept by these people. It deals and places high importance on the efficient and effective use of this information through helping its conversion, proper storage, first-class protection, relevant processing depending on the type of information, its transmittal to the correct person and timely retrieval. It does all these steps ensuring and making the informations security its top priority. Our research paper has its topic "Advantages of ICT". ICT stands for Information and Communications Technology. This
Marketing Strategy of Marc Jacobs - Essay Example The paper "Marketing Strategy of Marc Jacobs" examines the fashion label of Marc Jacobs and its marketing strategy. Marc Jacobs launched his first Marc Jacobs Collections in 1986 and had won many awards. Before his collection was launched, he made a tremendous mark in the fashion designing world which increased the popularity of his collections. This drove him to launch Marc brand. Marc Jacobs has developed his brand as a fashionable brand with uniqueness with the intention to attract the consumers. Being in New York which is also known for its fashion trends, it made the brand more successful by the acceptance level of the consumers towards the brand. The value is generated when the consumers are willing to pay and are satisfied with the brands. The innovation technique is important in marketing strategy towards the consumers. Marc Jacobs had an innovative idea for developing a marketing strategy that would attract more consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ attentions and make the brand more eminent. M arc extensively used YouTube before it was used in an attempt to generate attention towards the brand. Consumers got attracted towards the brand offerings of different category of fashionable merchandises and till today the brand is successful and it illustrates the brand loyalty. Marc Jacobs offer women and men, ready to wear garments, accessories, bags, shoes, fragrance, eye wear and many more fashionable types of merchandise. Young people are more attracted towards the high fashionable merchandises that are offered by the brand.
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Intercultural communication Essay The power distance refers to the closeness, or lack thereof, between a person of authority and his or her subordinates. Those that hold the power of authority, that is those people who can bring about a change of some type, are also, many times, those who present with some type of symbol of their authority when attending a meeting, or otherwise on display. For example, in an Arabic country, a person in authority might wear a richly decorated robe and head covering while those in subordinate roles might be dressed in a less elaborate robe and plain head covering or a suit. The language one uses also denotes their position of authority. For example, a person in authority in a more democratic and informal society would usually address a subordinate by his or her given first name instead of using a salutation such as Mr or Ms along with the persons last name as would be the case in a more formal, less democratic culture. In addition, there is ample body language displayed both by the person in authority and by those whose are not in authority. A person of authority will usually command a presence in a room by presenting oneself in the front and center of a group of people. Subordinates to the person in power will flank that person by standing back away and behind the person in authority. Indeed, depending on the culture of the person in authority, that person will either talk to their subordinates in an aloof way that can seem to be almost rude to someone that is unused to it. The countries that demand this sort of communication include those located in the Arab speaking areas of the world, as well as Russia and China. In other cultures, such as those found in Australia, Canada, and Japan, there is more of an egalitarian mood to the interactions between a person with the power of authority and their subordinates. This is characterized by mutual respect between both parties that is not found in those more conservative countries.
Diffusion Review Worksheet Essay 1. Define diffusion and what causes it to occur? The action of spreading the light from a light source evenly so as to reduce glare and harsh shadows. Diffusion is caused when entities are small and moving in molecules. They collide because they are moving at a random pace. The temperature causes diffusion. 2. Define the terms hypertonic, hypotonic, and isotonic solution. * Hypertonic: Having increased pressure or tone, in particular. * Hypotonic: Having reduced pressure or tone, in particular. * Isotonic solution: a solution having the same osmotic pressure 3. Explain the similarities and differences between diffusion and osmosis. Both are the movement of a substance from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. But osmosis is the movement of water through a cell membrane. 4. Define Turgor pressure ( also known as osmotic pressure). The pressure that would have to be applied to a pure solvent to prevent it from passing into a given solution by osmosis, often used to express the concentration of the solution 5. What occurs when plasmolysis takes place? The cells shrink and shiver. 6. Define the terms endocytosis and exocytosis . * Endocytosis: the taking in of matter by a living cell by its membrane to form a vacuole. * Exocytosis: Large molecules that are manufactured in the cell are released through the cell membrane. 7. Name the two processes that occur during endocytosis. 8. What are the differences between active and passive transport? * Requires energy or ATP * DoesnÃ¢â¬â¢t require energy, moves high to low concentration 9. Define facilitated diffusion. * The passage of both materials aided by both a concentration gradient and by a transport protein. 10. What is a carrier protein? What is its function? * can change shape to move material from one side of the membrane to the other 11. What statement describes the movement of molecules from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration? * 12. What does the term semipermeable (or selectively permeable) membrane mean? * Small molecules and larger hydrophilic molecules move through easily. * Ions, hydrophilic molecules larger than water, and large molecules such as proteins do not move through the membrane on their own. 13. What happens to the water in a cell placed in a hypertonic solution? * Water is moving out. 14. What happens to a cell placed in a hypotonic solution * It shrinks 15. Define the following terms: * Concentration gradient: a difference in the concentration of a substance across a distance * Diffusion: the movement of particles from regions of higher density to regions of lower density * Equilibrium: in biology, a state that exists when the concentration of a substance is the same throughout a space * Osmosis: the diffusion of water or another solvent from a more dilute solution (of a solute) to a more concentrated solution (of the solute) through a membrane that is permeable to the solvent * Phospholipid: a lipid that contains phosphorus and that is a structural component in cell membranes * carrier protein: a protein that transports substances across a cell membrane * Receptor protein: a protein that binds specific signal molecules, which causes the cell to respond * lipid bilayer: the basic structure of a biological membrane, composed of two layers of phospholipids * sodium-potassium pump: a carrier protein that uses ATP to actively transport sodium ions out of a cell and potassium ions into the cell * second messenger: a molecule that is generated when a specific substance attaches to a receptor on the outside of a cell membrane, which produces a change in cellular function * signal: anything that serves to direct, guide, or warn
Saturday, September 21, 2019
The Concept of Satisfaction in Higher Education Introduction and frame of the study This literature review aims at investigating the importance of satisfaction of the students in higher education form a marketing point of view. As such, we understand the meaning of words, expression, and concepts we only have a limited relation to Operational field of study (that would understand HEIs as a Business entity). The study will be constructed as follow, we shall first understand the definition of satisfaction within the boundaries of the subject earlier mentioned before investing its particular meaning for students and its place and importance in Service Quality. We would like to warn the reader that we have a limitation in term of references. To overcome this later one, we chose to focus on fairly recent articles. Our aim is certainly not to diminish the utter significance of early literature but they will be often quoted here as part of our chosen references. While sourcing for articles, we noticed that service quality is an avant-gardiste and ever growing field of study that branchs out worldwile to every industries, Education makes no exeption. The assumption we made from the coursework statement is that we certainely will be assessed on both the core chosen subject and our technical skills for conducting a literature review. Therefore, we shall try our best and limit our volume of reference without compromising the integrity of the subject. The concept of Satisfaction The concept of satisfaction plays a key role in any marketing strategy (Churchill and Suprenant, 1982), and it is even considered the king of marketing research (Oliver, 1999). Creating a sustainable advantage in todays competitive market depends, to a large extent, on the ability to deliver high-quality service that translates into satisfied customers (Shemwell, Yavas and Bilgin, 1998). Customer satisfaction is a central concept in marketing research (Luo and Homburg, 2007). In fact, Machleit and Mantel (2000) consider satisfaction as the core of all marketing activities. In the beginning, research in the area of customer satisfaction focused only on end consumers. It was therefore commonly referred to as consumer satisfaction (Bearden and Teel 1983, Cadotte et al., 1987, Anderson, 1993). Customer satisfaction is the result of experiencing a service and comparing that experience with the expected service quality (Oliver, 1980), in relation to both intangible and tangible goods; it can be defined on two different levels: as a simple transaction, or as the overall accumulation of the relationship (Jones and Suh, 2000). While there is some academic agreement that the process of contradiction is a precedent of satisfaction, empirical support for this relationship has not been complete (Yi, 1990). There is a wide discussion as to whether it is expectations that directly affect satisfaction, or whether its main antecedent is perceived quality (Churchill and Surprenant, 1982, Bahia et al., 2000). Hereby, the evaluation of client satisfaction (Bahia et al., 2000) can provide a more realistic and dynamic representation of the clients satisfaction (Bahia et al., 2000). Various definitions of satisfaction have been established within the scope of service marketing. Oliver (1980) defines this as a finite-duration experience that relates directly to the experience of a product or service, serving to maintain or improve the previous attitude that the client had about the product or service in question. Kotler (1999, 2000) considers it as the mood of a person that results from comparing the perceived performance of a product or service with their initial expectations, having a close relationship with the perceived value. This global customer satisfaction is an important indicator of the perceived past, present and future results of a company or any other entity offering products or services (Anderson, Fornell and Lehmann, 1994). Mano and Oliver (1993) define satisfaction as a hedonistic evaluative attitude or judgment centered on the product, and that it could be evaluated after consumption. Fornell (1992) defines satisfaction as a general assessment, based on the evaluation of the perceived product after the purchase, which has to be compared with the expectations before the purchase. On the other hand, Halstead et al. (1994) consider that satisfaction is an affective response, in the centre of which is the comparison of the result of the product before the purchase, and during or after its consumption. Rust and Oliver (1994) suggest that the level of satisfaction reflects the degree to which a consumer believes that the possession or use of a service generates positive feelings. As noted by Chang et al. (2009), when satisfaction is considered as an emotional response, it is defined as satisfaction of transaction, whereas when the service depends on many factors, in which repeated transactions occur, satisfaction is given as a cumulative result, or overall satisfaction (Shankar et al., 2003). To a great extent, this view of repeated transactions corresponds to the service provided by universities, since it depends on many factors over a long period of time. In addition, students do not have the opportunity to easily switch providers, causing opportune dissatisfaction. Various researchers have defined satisfaction as a positive orthe net value of services received from a provider (Schmidt and Allscheid, 1995; Woodruff, 1997; Douglas et al., 2004). The table below shows a selection of definitions about this concept. Therefore, the concept of customer satisfaction has been extensively debated in the literature, and numerous definitions have been proposed without a consensus being reached. After having thoroughly examined the main definitions that have been proposed, Giese and Cote (2000) identify three basic distinctive components that make up satisfaction: 1. The type of response, (i.e. whether it is a cognitive, affective or conative), as well as the intensity of the response. 2. The focus or object of this response, which may be based on an evaluation of the rules related to the product, the experiences of consumption of the product, or the attributes related to the purchase, such as, for example, the sales staff. 3. The time or moment at which the evaluation is performed, which can be expressed before or after making the choice, after consumption, after accumulated experiences, or at any other time. In this study, for example, the evaluation is performed after the consumption of the service and gathers experiences accumulated from the perspective of the graduate. Achieving consumer or customer satisfaction is one of the main goals for greater competitiveness (Seymour, 1993). Knowing the satisfaction of different audiences gives rise to different benefits (Anderson, 1993): For clients this means that organizations understand the variables that improve the satisfaction of the public, which leads to improvements in products and services and improvements in life standards; For companies this means improvement of the customer portfolio (forecast for the future), improvements in the distribution of resources, competitive information; For countries this means an increase in competitiveness within national strategies, improvements in state economies, aid for decision making in the businesses (national and foreign), and a better understanding of the differences between countries. Understanding of satisfaction with the organizations gives rise to synergies that, generally, tend to favor the competitiveness of a country. Satisfaction for university students A university, as a public institution, should try to create a positive image for its different audiences. It must know each one of them deeply to satisfy them adequately and to know what all those variables that influence a positive assessment of the university are. In the case of students, it is important to analyze all those variables that influence both: their university experience, as well as their pre- and post-experiences. Therefore, universities progressively create, maintain and consolidate relationships with their different audiences, especially with their students (Hasan, Ilias, Rahman and Razak, 2008). It is only with the satisfied students that the success and permanence of the students, and, above all, the formation of a positive word of mouth can be achieved in the institution (Alves and Raposo, 2004). In the context of higher education, Elliot and Healy (2001) affirm that student satisfaction is a short-term attitude derived from the evaluation of their educational experience. On the other hand, Elliott and Shin (2002) define student satisfaction as the subjective evaluation of the different students outcomes (employment, social, etc.) as well as of their experiences of education and life on campus and their initial expectations. The reasons that motivated students to decide on their career and on the university play a fundamental role in such expectations (Elliot and Shin, 2002). A university students satisfaction is a multidimensional concept that depends on students own implication and goals, as well as on the quality and service provided by the university (Hartman and Schmidt, 1995). As a rule, student satisfaction was assessed throughout the literature with the help of questionnaires that evaluate the quality of teaching and the content of subjects or specific services, such as libraries. But a lesser degree of questionnaires are sent to students after finishing the university stage, so that they can evaluate the institution. In addition, it is important to analyse the psychological and pre-university aspects that influence the academic evolution of the student. Students participating in the learning process are the main stakeholders of the university, and therefore, the focus on student satisfaction goes hand in hand with the development of a culture of continuous improvement of the university (Harvey, 1995). Biggs (2003) reviews the studies that have addressed university satisfaction, concluding that achieving high student satisfaction allows for different benefits to be obtained in the learning process: Teachers show higher productivity and enthusiasm when the appreciation of their services is evaluated; In the case of higher education, an institution is more willing to adopt changes; for example, to assume new teaching / learning styles; It is assumed that students performs their university studies and have fun at the same time; Students perception and experience are evaluated so that the university is aware of the aspects to be improved based on the students opinion. There have been numerous researches, who focused on the concept of university satisfaction, via studying which components or determinants make up such satisfaction (Aitken, 1982; Bean Bradley, 1986; Pike, 1991; Hartman Schmidt, 1995; Webb Jagun, 1997; Browne et al., 1998; Aldridge Rowley, 1998; Browne et al., 1999; Elliot Healy, 2001; Wiers-Jenssen, Stensaker Grogaard, 2002; Elliot Shin, 2002; DeShields, Kara Kaynak, 2005; Marzo et al., 2005; Arambewela Hall, 2006; Alves Raposo, 2007; Nasser, Khoury Abouchedid, 2008; Husain et al., 2009; Alves Raposo, 2010; Pike Larkin, 2010; Duque Weeks, 2010; Kheiry et al., 2012; Duarte, Alves Raposo, 2012; Moosmayer Siems, 2012; BlÃ ¡zquez et al., 2013). Table 3.11 lists papers whose main objective is to analyze the components and processes of satisfaction in the context of higher education. The performed work has measured the satisfaction of current students, that is, during their university experience. Among these studies, Aitken (1982) established that satisfaction depended on academic factors and accommodation services, whereas financial and personal factors, and involvement determined student retention. Later, Bean and Bradley (1986) concluded that the academic results do not affect the perception of the quality of aspects such as the service received or the physical aspects and satisfaction. More recently, Elliot and Healy (2001) concluded that attributes related to the environment, learning and student welfare are the main sources of satisfaction. Wiers-Jenssen et al. (2002) determined that university environment, as well as infrastructures and quality of service (as a specific dimension) are the main factors. While Husain et al. (2009) evidenced empirically that the sources of greatest satisfaction are the physical environment, interaction and received support, feedback, evaluation, and management. Finally, within the factors considered, BlÃ ¡zquez et al. (2013) concluded that sports activities and international programs are the social aspects that have the greatest impact on student satisfaction. In their study they included aspects related to facilities and resources (libraries, leisure resources, etc.), academic factors (teaching, workload, etc.) and social aspects (sports, housing, environment, etc.). Thereby, most of the authors have examined the satisfaction from the perspective of the current students, that is to say, that they were at the moment of carrying out their studies. Therefore, they have not been based on the recommendations of Westbrook and Oliver (1991) and Mano and Oliver (1993) who affirm that satisfaction is a state that must be evaluated after product consumption or service experience. However, Hartman and Schmidt (1995) took the perspective of the graduate (hence, after consumption) concluding that satisfaction depends largely on whether academic and work expectations have been met in addition to a favorable assessment of the services received during the experience. In this regard, the work of Duarte et al. (2012) compared the satisfaction of 150 students at two stages: halfway through their university career and after completing their studies. The results indicated that satisfaction is maintained at similar levels both when studying and at the end of the course; in fact, certain aspects, such as quality, were valued more once the graduates had had work experience. This contrasts with the results of Pike and Larkin (2010), and although they did not measure satisfaction by means of the graduate, they compared the evaluation of postgraduate students satisfaction at the beginning, middle and end of their course, revealing that satisfaction was greater during the initial stage of their studies, followed by higher levels of dissatisfaction later because their expectations have not been met. Nasser et al. (2008) reached the same conclusion, where he determined that the newcomers in the institution are those that present a higher degree of satisfaction . Apart from these studies, it is also worth mentioning the studies of graduates in Spain where they measure the satisfaction of the graduates with respect to the training and the service received that were analyzed in chapter 1 (for example, the UGR). With respect to other researchers, only Webb and Jagun (1997) took into account the employees of the university, and Browne et al. (1999) analyzed parental satisfaction compared to that of their own children, concluding that there is practically no difference in satisfaction among them, although it is slightly higher among the parents. Another aspect resulting from the observation of the table is that satisfaction has been a subject of research in many different countries, but the research done in the United States has been put in the forefront (Aitken, 1982; Bean and Bradley, 1986; Pike, 1991; Schmidt 1995, Browne et al., 1998, Browne et al., 1999, Elliot and Healy, 2001, Elliot and Shin, 2002, DeShields, Kara and Kaynak, 2005); there the majority of studies have focused on understanding the satisfaction attributes and development of a methodology or definition of a special measure for the university sector. Taking into account the Spanish context, Marzo et al. (2005) analyzed the influence of teaching components as factors of satisfaction. More recently, BlÃ ¡zquez et al. (2013) considered a greater number of aspects of university quality such as offered services or visual elements. It is noteworthy that in the study carried out by Duque and Weeks (2010) among both Spanish and American students, it was concluded that the implication is relevant in mediating the positive or negative assessment of the university service. Mention that studies have emphasized the importance of the relationship between quality and satisfaction (as was already possible in the section on quality) and will be analyzed later. Academic achievement has also been the subject of study as the basis for satisfaction with intellectual expectations (Bean and Bradley, 1986; Pike, 1991). Finally, taking into account the methodologies used to measure satisfaction, statistical techniques of regression analysis and structural equations stand out. Qualitative methods have been used to a lesser extent in relation to other variables such as image or quality, with certain exceptions (Webb and Jagun, 1997; Aldridge and Rowley, 1998).
The Significance Of Business Development In Hospitality The essay mainly focused on the significance of business development in hospitality, Business Development analyses and evaluates the different aspects of business growth routes and development processes in the international hospitality industry. It considers the essential features of the strategic business context, in which any hospitality organization operates. The hotel industry needs significance business development According to Pizam stases further in the essay following things will be focused similar to, aspire of importance of business development, accepting requires of consumer, how to build up product that can make best to customer want, the main reason for failed hotel business. Victorious hotels are individuals who regularly involved in developing new product that can catch the attention of consumer, for the reason that client are the crucial base of any business, particular in the hospitality sector. Discrimination refers to capability to offer exceptional value to client produce brand loyalty that lowers customer senility to cost (Pizam, 2005 p54) Modifying the business development system features of new products and world class services, toward the inside new markets and the success of any hospitality business depends mainly help to increase hotel revenue, improves customer satisfaction, quality, and achieves important benefits for organizations. According to Hassanien, Dale, Clark (2010) that Hospitality industry improvement refer to the method by which an association uses joint resources in order to launch, get better, modify or extend its present in an accessible in new market. (Hassanien A, et al, 2010 p1-p3) Profitability Successful Hotel industry organizations must regularly search to generate their profitability for new ways to reduce operating expense and grow revenues. Think about outsourcing as a way to reduce expenses, but also weigh up its effect on quality of service. Continuing improvements in technology and ideas have created new opportunities for profitability improvements, but technology improvements must be based on careful Return on profit. Hotel must look to both increases and decreases in room rates. Example Increase in room occupancy and room price once again provides London with the great compliment of being the most money-making city of Europes key hotel markets. The United Kingdom capital was way ahead of the pack significance achieving gross operating revenue per available room. The statement well said David Bailey, deputy managing director, TRI Hospitality Consulting. London hotels enjoyed a strong boost to profitability 23% during December 2009 .The first time since December 2008, Budapest hoteliers achieved amazing growth in profitability. To improve market shares have many wonderful ways, depending on the item for consumption or good service. Customization of services or product refers that enlarge the customers willingness to continue to deal with hotel rather than bidding out the contract at every opportunity. The trick here is to ensure that the high revenue and very fast improve market shares . Business growth goals Doing well business expansion requirements a lot of factors to come together at the exact time. For business growth must have the time to plan and manage the growth, the sales and market strategies must carry in new consumer. Unique product new unique product s creates an entirely targeted new market and provides that excellent improved performance better than old product. New products earn good profit and profit growth depends on market demand and new product introduction. The hotel offers a unique product to consumer. Hotel provides reimbursement that are planned to meet very precise needs, wants and desires of very specific target markets Sustained customer service and a scope of preference in product and services bring in a distinctive relationship between customer and product. (Cedicci et al, July 2007) for example a 5 star hotel in Ramada hotel Jaipur in India has changed many new items in its guest room like Big Flat TV, free internet facility fresh flowers and fruit bucket, laundry facility for the guest staying for more than a week, Bottle of red and white wine to all rooms. These unique ideas not only make easy the guest and make them happy this is shows business development of hotel. . Every big hotel has new market opportunities in Boutique hotels are those hotels which provide outstanding accommodation, furniture in a themed and stylish manner and cater to corporate travellers. Example: The Taj Lake palace Udaipur is one of the best boutique hotels in India. According to (Jones, 2009) boutique hotels was firstly opened in 1980s in USA and then gradually it covered the whole of Europe and finally throughout world. He says that the luxury hotels are in danger zone some watt but at the same time the there has been no effect on the boutique hotels and its growing day by day. Customer or tourist are mostly attracted to the boutique hotels rather than going to the luxury hotels. Most of the largest groups of hotels like intercontinental group of hotel , the Marriott hotel and Taj hotel are launching many boutique hotels in Europe as well as in many others country in the world Managerial urge According to Clark, A(2007) Budget hotels are those hotels which are designed and made according to meet up the fundamental require of the guest by provided that relaxing and very hygienic clean room for a comfortable stay in the hotel as well best budget fare. Budget hotels are totally new concept in all countries. These types hotel comes below five star hotels like as small property. Budget hotel discovered in USA Budget hotels generally comes under 4 star or 5 star property known as Budget Hotels. These kind of hotel do not recommend as many services as the other 5 star and luxury hotels offers, but offer reasonably priced accommodation to the extremely great price for the domestic customers and foreign travellers. Budget hotels are playing significant role Indian hospitality market. Economies scale The term Economies of scale refers to a firms abilityto reduces the cost of producing one unit of goodand services as the volume of production increases. Mass production and economies of scale werecentral concepts in the development of modern economic theory According Economies survey Hospitality industry currently generates more than $100 million in annual revenues, giving significant bulk and purchasing power. Customer attraction and Satisfaction To understand guest is the main key to business excellent improvement. Understanding guest need, necessity is only doable when hotel keep in contact with guest during stay in hotel and after stay, by responsibility explore in the market, must take feedback from guest as regards what guest look forward to any more expectation for next time stay in the hotel. The important of guest satisfaction has become an essential business issue as hotel has realized the significance outcome achieved when providing effective customer service in hotel industry satisfaction has always been important. The ability to satisfy customer, therefore.become the key ingredient of continued success Coopers,P(2002) shows that firm is aware that customers satisfaction and quality can be more important than current financial result creating long term share holder Competition is increasing national and international market new competitors growing fast day by day in hotel industry. EDDYSTONE C. NEBEL III states that Being successful in hotel business depends how much the hotel managing level is strong and power full and how much know about business development. Hotels industry has become very much competitive industry, this affects how hotel need to be managed. Significance of business development in hotels are need to improve standard of service and understanding how the service business differ from good-producing business helps executives manage better to best. Hotels provide both a product and service. The main purpose is that ability to provide great service Competition is main significance of business development Marketers must need to monitor other competitors product and must be development distribution method to make high competitions with other hotels. Brand and image improvement. In to have better brand image the particular brand should be advertize and marketed well and they should be innovative pricing which would attract more guests to visit the particular branded property (Anon, 2008) In India has many highly branded hotels as like Taj, ITC,but Oberoi hotel group is one most highly trusted brand in Hospitality industry in India. An Oberoi hotel understands its guest and believes in designing, excellent developing services which make possible it to top their expectation. Oberoi hotels are always willing to take new challenges and needs of their guest, Oberoi hotel is most well organized and methodically managed hotel in India which is really wonderful effort to do its best, to make happy to guest, and hotel gives value for money to guest. Oberoi is mostly known as for world class and very excellence in service. Hotel meets the needs of guest and hotel keep on innovating new product.Brands are seen as product characteristics brand is associated in consumer mind and advertising has a significance influence of consumer image of brand Globalization In all world countries, where Travel and tourism have grow to be a most important export industry, the hospitality sector is the central position for concepts of globalization. Hospitality industry has become the worldÃ ¹s largest export industry. The hospitality industry is one of the worldÃ ¹s largest employer and arguably one of the largest traders of foreign currency. The hospitality industry plays significance branch bodily in bringing people together with a global community Internationalization The twentieth century was the rapid supply in h internationalization hotel market. Hotels companies expanded market across the world. Example Marriot hotels spread from 29 countries in 1996to 56countries in 1999. Best western is largest internationalization working under a single brand name and western has more than4000 separately owned and operated hotels in the world. Best western offers over 300,000 sleeping bedrooms in 78 countries all over world. Business development the process by which a Hotel industry can get better performance through modify feature and attribute of it recent product or services developing new product or service toward the inside new market In the hospitality industry. Conclusion This essay y highlight the importance of business development within hospitality industry a. what significance of business development
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