Thursday, January 30, 2020

Words And Rules Essay Example for Free

Words And Rules Essay In the first chapter of â€Å"How the Mind Works† Pinker introduces the content of the book. He starts by comparing the mind and a robot. Pinker tries to analyze the characteristics of the mind in comparison to those of the robot. (Pinker, S, 2000:6) In his analysis the mind is the product of evolution over time. This is seen in what the mine has created during the evolution among which is the robot. While the robot is programmed to perform specific acts, the mind thinks on its own. (Pinker, S, 2000:12) In the second chapter Pinker looks at the psychology of cognition. In his description these are the rules and the guiding principles that help the mind to recognize things. In â€Å"Words and Rules† Pinker starts by wondering about the mysteries of language. He looks at the arbitrary connection between the words and the meaning they make. Since there is no connection, he says, then, the words we use must be guided by a set of rules deep in the mind. (Pinker, S, 2000:18) He later borrows the idea of Chomsky to imply that the rules that guide the use of words are a social phenomenon. The difference in use of language is based on creative use of the rules underlying the use of these languages. Bibliography Pinker, S, (2000), The Ingredients of Language. New York: Harper Perennial

Friday, January 24, 2020

The Story of Joshua and the Battle of Jericho Essay example -- The Hol

â€Å"When the trumpets sounded, the people shouted†¦(and)†¦ the wall collapsed† (Joshua 6:20). This is the account of Joshua and the people of Israel when they entered the Promised Land known as Canaan. As the Lord commanded they entered the land and conquered all the cities there, beginning with Jericho. The story of Joshua and the Battle of Jericho is a famous one. Everyone who has ever attended Sunday school has heard this famous Biblical account. What is overlooked in Sunday school is the passage after the walls fall down, â€Å"They devoted the city to the LORD and destroyed with the sword every living thing in it – men and women, young and old, cattle, sheep and donkeys† (Joshua 6:21). This is one of the more difficult passages in the Bible. It raises many questions, questions that are not easily answered. In fact, scholars today still debate them. Reading this section of the Bible, found in Joshua chapter 6, you ask yourself: how can we worship a God who permits His own people to slaughter innocents? How did the Israelites justify breaking one of the Ten Commandments (or ‘Words’ as is the more accurate translation)? If God is just, then how can he allow the slaughter of innocents? Is God really a just god? Such are the questions that come up whenever the slaughter at Jericho is brought up. Further seemingly brutal violence is found within God’s own people. If you read on an Israelite named Achan steals some of the bounty from Jericho when God commanded them not too. He was stoned along with his whole family! God seems to be a violent, harsh god in these passages. How can this be if He is supposed to be the God of love, compassion and mercy? Israel, at this point in their history is very young as a nation and a people. Actually, it ... ...e question him? Yes, because Yahweh has a true desire for us to know Him personally and have a personal relationship with Him. How can we do that without asking questions and studying His word? We can’t. In the end it comes down to the fact that He is in contro1, He is always right and He is a just god! Works Cited Davis, John J. Conquest and Crisis: Studies in Joshua, Judges, and Ruth. BMH Books. Vinona Lake, Indiana. 1969. Hamlin, John E. Joshua - Inheriting the Land. Wm. B Eerdman’s Publishing Co. Grand Rapids MI, 1983. Jensen, Irving L. Joshua: Rest-Land Won. Moody Press: Chicago IL, 1966. Paul Heinisch, Theology of Old Testament. Liturgical Press. St. Paul MN, 1955. Pink, Arthur W. Gleanings in Joshua. Moody Press: Chicago IL, 1964. Yahweh. The Holy Bible: New International Version. Broadman &Holman Publishers: Nashville, TN, 1973

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

My Antonia Essay: The Character of Lena Lingard -- My Antonia Essays

The Character of Lena Lingard in My Antonia  Ã‚  Ã‚        Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Lena Lingard is the best example of a non-domestic central character which appears amidst the domesticity of My à ntonia. Often the sections which feature Lena instead of à ntonia are seen as confusing divergences from the plot line of a novel that purports to be about the woman named in the title. However, since Lena appears in the novel almost as often as à ntonia, and more often than any other character except Jim, she is a central character. Lena is a working woman who refuses to accept the constraints society places upon her. Even when society predicts that by becoming a dressmaker instead of marrying she will fail and become a "loose" woman, she disrupts their expectations and succeeds.    The first image of Lena in the novel is as newly arrived, pseudo-sophisticated country girl who has come to town to learn the trade of dressmaking. However, from the beginning of our knowledge of Lena she is anti-domestic. Lena recognizes that marriage is difficult-- she is never caught up in the "idea" of romance which leads à ntonia to a disastrous relationship and unwed motherhood. à ntonia takes the dances and socializing much more seriously and ends up in trouble, whereas Lena enjoys dancing and kissing but is merely having fun. When asked about her mother, Lena responds, "Oh, mother's never very well; she has too much to do. She'd get away from the farm, too, if she could" (Cather, 104). When Frances Harling teases Lena about a suitor who the town thinks Lena will marry, she responds, "I don't want to marry Nick, or any other man, . . . I've seen a good deal of married life, and I don't care for it" (105). It seems impossible for the town to believe that a beautiful gir... ...c plot" limits and ignores the non-traditional female experience which is just as important to analyze. The Nan Princes, Lena Lingards and Tiny Solderalls of the fictional world deserve and demand critical attention not for what they don't do (the dishes) but for what they are-- working women.    Works Cited Cather, Willa. My Antonia. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company. 1995. Gelfant, Blanche H. "The Forgotten Reaping Hook: Sex in My Antonia." Bloom's Modern Critical Views, 103-123. Jewett, Sarah Orne. A Country Doctor. New York: The Penguin Group. 1986. Romines, Ann. The Home Plot: Women, Writing & Domestic Ritual. Amherst: The University of Massachusetts Press. 1992. Weiner, Lynn Y. From Working Girl to Working Mother: The Female Labor Force in the United States, 1820-1980. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press. 1985.   

Thursday, January 16, 2020

Changing Paradigms of Rebranding Strategies

According to the AMA (American Marketing Association), Brand is a name, term, sign, symbol, design, or a combination of all used to uniquely identify a producer’s goods and services and differentiate them from competitors. Specifically, a brand is a name â€Å"yahoo. com† logo, jingle ‘bus 2 minutes’, â€Å"Maggie†, slogan ‘sense and simplicity’, â€Å"PHILIPS†, package design, spokesperson, color Red color,† Vodafone† which consumers associate with a specific product. REBRANDING-WHAT IS IT?Rebranding occurs when a product or service developed with one brand, company or product line affiliation is marketed or distributed with a new and different identity. It is usually more than simply a change in brand’s logo and other superficial changes and should involve radical changes to the brand name, image marketing strategy and advertising themes. In order to complete Rebranding, several areas should be reviewed includ ing positioning, personality, cluster of values, logo, company, identity and vision prior to the building of a brand.Rebranding can take place for a new product, a mature product, or even developing products. In some cases, a total rebrand may not be necessary but rather a partial rebrand. When a brand has been firmly established but may be outdated or needs refreshing due to new products or services, partial Rebranding may be more appropriate. It is critical that the brand value that’s been developed over the years not be eliminated. Subtle changes to update it may be all that is necessary to get the message across and revitalize sales.It is important to differentiate between Rebranding of a product versus repositioning of a product. Repositioning may involve a change in any of the marketing mix elements in an effort to respond to declining sales or market share. The goal in repositioning is to target existing products at new markets or segments. Repositioning may be part of Rebranding campaign. In contrast, Rebranding should involve a total change to fundamental company elements such as mission statements, values and widely recognized logos in an effort to have the company’s brand accurately reflect what it offers.WHEN SHOULD REBRANDING OCCURS: Rebranding is appropriate and essential under several circumstances in order to ensure success in product and service delivery. Often, a company has adapted their products to keep competitive in the marketplace to the extent the company’s brand may no longer accurately reflect what if offers. In this case, a major brand overhaul is necessary. A large quantity of acquisitions or merging of companies may require Rebranding in order to adequately reflect the new, large company.When is Rebranding necessary? DRIVERS OF REBRANDING: The two major reasons of rebranding are: corporate restructuring and modifying the external perceptions. The following text highlights more drivers that call for rebranding e xercise: †¢ Outliving the usefulness: Sometimes, a brand might outlive the purpose for which it was created. In such a scenario, it is more suitable to change the name of brand and then continue or prune the product depending upon the market requirement. Values change: Sometimes, the value that promoters want to display to the audience through the brands change, and that is why they decide to change the brand name as well. †¢ Mergers and acquisitions: Cases like the merger and acquisitions force the corporates to dawn a new identity for themselves, as it was seen in the case of Air Deccan and Kingfisher. However, while conducting the rebranding exercise, the companies should conduct a thorough analysis of the values and the attributes for which the brand name of the merging companies stand for and then only a new name should be adopted or the old one should be changed. Confused brands: In the case of UTI bank which changed its name to Axis bank, the brand UTI was associate d with many other instituted in different streams financial strength, had to go for rebranding. CONSIDERATIONS FOR REBRANDING: †¢ Through analysis of the target market: A company indulging in a rebranding exercise will not like to indulge into the exercise at the cost of its existing customers. Therefore, a thorough analysis of the profile of the existing customers is warranted. The rebranding exercise may attract new segments of the market but should not drive away the existing segments being served by the market. Nature of brand equity: A thorough analysis of brand equity and the nature of its standing in the eyes of its stakeholders should be conducted before going for dropping an already well established name, because if the new name fails to live up to the expectations of the stakeholders, it may result in a huge loss in terms of the sales and goodwill of the firm and through these two elements, on the value of the firm. †¢ Project Management: It is generally the mark eting department who takes up the leadership role in implementing the rebranding exercise and tries to seek out and surmount the challenges ahead.However, in many cases, it is the board of directors with the external ad agency who decide upon the rebranding exercise and implement it. †¢ Staff Involvement : The staff involvement is seen at various levels of the organization and they are basically consulted to suggest and brain storm on the new brand name and the like. †¢ Customer Involvement: Though not many organizations go for customer feedback before rebranding themselves, feedback is sought in a more subtle and discreet way from the customers. Since confidentially is a concern for such an exercise, the rebranding campaign was not made more broad based.OBSTACLES: †¢ Time consuming: Most of the organizations found brand building time consuming and they failed to estimate the exact time for conducting the exercise. †¢ Internal Resistance: Employee morale is great ly affected by the attitudes associated with the organization they work with, so many a times a change in brand name greatly affects their motivation and willingness to work for their responses. PREREQUISITES OF A SUCCESSFUL REBRANDING EXERCISE. †¢ Clear Vision: The top management should have a clear vision about the organization and the direction in which it wants to take the organization.It also should have a fair idea as to what does it want to achieve through the rebranding exercise. †¢ Engagement of staff: The staff should be engaged at all levels across the organization to have a feeling or unanimity and oneness towards the entire exercise. †¢ Thorough Planning: The rebranding exercise should be thoroughly planned and if need be, contingency plans should be prepared for any crisis. Rebranding is a difficult exercise to execute and it requires a lot of planning and a very minute detailed setting of goals and milestones in the execution phase to ensure the smooth implementation of the rebranding exercise. Adequate Resources: Adequate resources should be provided to the organization in terms of manpower, money and other resources. The complexity in execution; especially in the communication process calls for expert intervention in the entire process and the dispassionate observation and wide knowledge of the experts becomes a necessary in such projects. †¢ Communication: The communication with the stake holders should be consistent, clear and multilateral to win their confidence towards the entire exercise. Impact on the Financial Markets: A firm exists for the maximization of shareholders wealth and it is therefore very important for the organization, to study the short term impact of the rebranding exercise on the financial markets and the organization should plan as to how it is going to deal with the short term impacts on the stock market prices of the rebranding exercise. TYPES OF REBRANDING EXERCISE: 1) Reiterating: These companies need not change their brand name, their names are strong enough and the brand essence has not changed over a period of years. ) Renaming: Some companies may go for renaming themselves to display the change in the ownership structure and to reflect the new owner’s identity in the name or the logo of the company. 3) Redefining: Some companies may go for redefining the qualities and attributes attached to it. It is done to give the company a new direction and also convey to the stake holders a change in the ownership pattern and the new direction of the company. 4) Restarting: These organizations feel a need not only to change the attributes attached to their brands but also the brand names ltogether. This happens when an existing brand departs from or enters into a new product line. 5) Abstract Brand Name: Companies normally go for an abstract brand name, because their abstraction lends them the flexibility of getting associated with other products also. Moreover, it is also s een that service organizations prefer more abstract names as they want to convey more complex messages than the product based organizations. REBRANDING SUCCESS: Several well-known companies have attempted Rebranding in recent years.In some cases the Rebranding effort has been all encompassing for the company and in other cases a few changes were all that were necessary in order to ensure success. Hindustan Unilever limited: Hindustan Lever, a 51. 6 per cent subsidiary of Unilever plc formed in 1956, is the largest FMCG Company in India. It operates in two segments — home and personal care products such as soaps, detergents, oral care products, hair care products, skin care products, cosmetics, deodorants and fragrances, and food and beverages such as tea, coffee, wheat flour, salt, ice creams and culinary products.With a turnover of over US$ 2200 million in 2003, HLL employs over 40,000 people across the country. Coca-Cola India: Coca-Cola is a leading player in the Indian be verage market with a 60 per cent share in the carbonated soft drinks segment, 36 per cent share in fruit drinks segment and 33 per cent share in the packaged water segment. In 2004, Coca-Cola sold 7 billion packs of its brands to more than 230 million consumers across 4,700 towns and 175,000 villages. The company has doubled its volumes and trebled its profits between 2001 and 2004. Coca-Cola continues to re-affirm its commitment to India through active ‘Citizenship Efforts. All its plants in India partner with local NGOs to alleviate local community issues in numerous small ways. It boasts of impeccable credentials on quality. Coca-Cola has succeeded in spite of an extremely price-sensitive consumer with entrenched beverage consumption habits – tea, nimbu-paani (lemonade) and a fragmented and geographically dispersed retail market, and a high tax environment. Intel India: Intel India was established in 1988 in Bangalore, and has now grown to include the maximum number of Intel divisions in any country outside the United States.India’s increasing IT and engineering talent pool, has ensured that the majority of work done at Intel India is software and hardware engineering; and has also established the Intel India Design Centre, as Intel’s largest non-manufacturing site internationally. Intel has over 2,000 employees, of whom 1,200 work at the development centre. Significant market development groups include education and Intel Capital, which helps Intel make strategic investments in technology and online start-ups. Intel has invested US$ 60 million in infrastructure in India. REBRANDING FAILURES:For every successful Rebranding story, there is at least one corresponding failure. The example given below outlines some of the reasons why Rebranding does not always succeed. New Coke: One of the most infamous rebranding failure stories in history is that of New Coke. On April 23, 1985, Coca-Cola Company took one of its biggest risks by anno uncing it was changing the formula for the world’s most popular soft drink. The outcry which followed was heard around the world. The motivation behind the formula change was a shrinking market share which the company believed to be the results of its arch rival Pepsi-Cola.During the 1970’s, the â€Å"Pepsi Challenge† campaign seemed to erode the coke market even further. The company felt compelled to do something as it appeared consumers; particularly the baby boomer market, had a preference for sweeter drinks. Coke experimented with a new sweeter formula and market tests indicated the new formula was preferred overwhelmingly to both regular Coke and Pepsi. A first hint of pending disaster was when focus groups indicated indignation upon finding out they were tasting a possible new Coca-Cola and threatened to stop drinking coke altogether.Nevertheless, the company relied heavily on the market analysis and research and launched new coke in April of 1985. Initial results were promising but the backlash that followed almost took the company down. The company did not factor in the rich, cultural history tied to the original coke. Even though taste tests continued to indicate a preference for the sweeter drink, brand loyalty was staunch for the classic coke and consumers boycotted the new coke as a result. With in 3 months, coca-cola was forced to bring back classic coke, which resulted in a resurgence of sales to bring coca-cola to the fore front once again.Eventually, New Coke became Coke II and is virtually unavailable in distribution today. So what went wrong? Research was extensive, leadership supported the rebranding and an extensive advertising campaign was launched. Perhaps the company should have listened to that minority segment in the focus groups who were offended that Coca-Cola would even think about changing its formula(which it actually did any way when it changed from a sugar sweetness to a more inexpensive high fructose corn s yrup sweetener). This was a hint of the cultural backlash that would result, particularly from the southern U.S. where coke was a part of the regional identity. Perhaps the launch was not successfully implemented. Pepsi was able to strategically maneuver advertising by claiming they had won the cola wars prior to the official launch of New Coke. In addition, Coca-Colas CEO was unprepared for the â€Å"launching news conference resulting in alienation of reporters. He could not answer simple questions about the taste change. What ever the reason New Coke is now history and coke classic with other coke products maintain a lead in overall sales.Volume for the classic brand has risen 24 percent since 1984 making it the No. 1 soft drink in the land since 1987. It is interesting how loyal consumers can be to a brand once you take it away temporarily. The rebranding failure actually led to revitalization of the existing brand and a newfound respect by company leadership for the â€Å"cul ture† surrounding the original Coca-Cola product. MISTAKES MADE WHEN REBRANDING: †¢ Lack of True Change: It is important to remember that rebranding signals change. Your brand is more than your logo or corporate colors.Simply repacking the goods and providing some new designs will not get results you need. Putting a new cover on an old book doesn’t make it new. Brands include every thing from customer perception and experience to quality, look and feel, customer care and retail and web environments. Make sure the changes instilled are all encompassing or customers will catch on quick and make a fast departure. †¢ Lack of Quality Research: Research is required in order to be able to establish a plan for rebranding. Current and prospective customers must be involved when creating solutions.Knowing customer attitudes and desires is essential in order to deliver the product they want in the way they want it delivered. In addition, research should be interpreted cu rrently or the rebranding efforts can take a wrong direction. Coca-cola performed extensive research but discounted a portion of it which ultimately became very important foreshadowing of things to come. †¢ Ignoring Brand Equity: By ignoring existing brand equity when rebranding, a company faces the risk of alienating and subsequently losing existing loyal customers. This was evident during the attempted rebranding of coke.The company assumed all customers would like and want the taste of new coke because they didn’t understand the extent of the current brand loyalty. AT & T took this into consideration after merging with Southwestern Bell to ensure customers were comfortable and unconcerned about any loss of service. †¢ Basing Rebranding on Advertising: Just as rebranding is not simply repacking the product, neither is it simply the advertising campaign. Brand strategy should be the core item leading advertising; advertising should not lead brand strategy.Interesti ngly, some rebranding efforts may not include traditional advertising. Make sure the rebranding campaign is more than advertising or nothing will change for the company. †¢ Inability to Analyze the Positioning: The literature revealed that ‘Repositioning’ is one of the most important drivers for rebranding. Positioning is not what company does with the product; it’s all about what they do with the mind of the target audience, and what customers think about the company. So, it is vital for rebranding to clarify and refine the positioning.Both the present as well as desired positioning of the company should be apparent. †¢ Lack of Top Level Support: Even though the rebranding may be born in the marketing department, it should be owned and supported by the top level managers especially the CEO. The CEO (Chief Executive Officer) is the only authority who can drive change in all the functional areas across the organization. The CEO needs to set the vision an d lead rebranding to ensure that Product, Service & People are aligned and determined to deliver the implied promises through rebranding. CONCLUSION:As branding trends continue to evolve, rebranding success seems to depend on the ability to adapt to the rapidly evolving media environment and taking advantage of new opportunities to reach the target audience. In order to remain competitive, companies will need to embrace â€Å"hot† media to spread the message to younger and techsavvy customers. New methods include blogs, pod casts, mobile phone-based programming, and social networks. However, a balance must be maintained with traditional methods of media in order to reach and retain the existing customer base. In order to rebrand successfully, key steps need to be taken in the process.Companies who embrace the elements of rebranding usually are able to obtain their goals. Companies who fail to address all of the elements of rebranding often make mistakes and succumb to failure . So does rebranding work? Yes, and NO. It works when it is based on quality information, has the support of leadership and employees, is well-planned, provide adequate training, is integrated throughout the whole company, has a well-balanced multi-media advertising campaign that communicates the brand message consistently across multiple platforms, is customer driven, and is evaluated on an on-going basis to determine if alterations are need.When these elements are not present, the chance of rebranding success diminishes rapidly. EXHIBITS |IBM | |Old |New | |[pic] |[pic] | Hindustan Lever Limited |Hindustan Unilever Limited | |Old |New | |[pic] |[pic] | Indian post | |Old |New | |[pic] |[pic] | [pic] [pic] [pic] PHILIPS | |Old |New | |[pic] |[pic] | |COMPAQ | |Old |New | |[pic] |[pic] | HUTCH |Vodafone | |Old |New | |[pic] |[pic] | |APPLE | |Old |New | |[pic] |[pic] | KFC | |Old |New | |[pic] |[pic] | | AIWA | |Old |New | |[pic] |[pic] | KODAK | |Old |New | |[pic] |[pic] | |SATYAM |MAHINDRA SATYAM | |Old |New | |[pic] |[pic] | VIDEOCON | |Old |New | |[pic] |[pic] | |CANARA BANK | |Old New | |[pic] |[pic] | |JET AIRWAYS | |Old |New | |[pic] |[pic] | BANK OF BARODA | |Old |New | |[pic] |[pic] | RELIANCE | |Old |New | |[pic] |[pic] | [pic] BIBLIOGRAPHY: †¢ Kotler, Keller, Koshy, Jha. â€Å"Marketing Management†, 13th Edition, Pearson Education. YLR Moorthi, â€Å"Brand Management, The Indian Context†,2006, Vikas publishing house pvt ltd. †¢ Bhavishya, The journal of futuristic managers, Jan-Mar 2008. †¢ Dr. M. A. Azeem, Prof. T. Venkat Ram Raj, December-2008,†Rebranding – A business imperative†, Indian Journal of Marketing, Page no: 15-21. †¢ M. Saeed, Ravinder vinayek, Narender kumar, September-2008, â€Å"Rebranding: An emerging brand marketing strategy (Trends, Issues and challenges)†, Indian Journal of Marketing, Page no: 3-10.WEBLIOGRAPHY: †¢ http://blong. styleap ple. com †¢ http://images. google. co. in/imgres? imgurl=http://remade. files. wordpress. com/2008/01/canarabankbeforeafter. jpg †¢ http://www. mobilepandit. com/2005/12/07/rebranding-reliance-infocom †¢ www. thehindubussinessline. com ———————– Change in Service Name Change Change in Product Acquisitions & Mergers Change in market Place New Product Launch Rebranding

Monday, January 13, 2020

Operations Management †Toyota Essay

Introduction Toyota is the leading manufacturer of automobiles in the World today. Looking back at the history of Toyota, the company was on the brink of bankruptcy by the end of 1949, however Toyota has successfully gained the status of number one car manufacturer in the World and has held onto that status even though Toyota has faced massive hurdles over the past 5 years. A major factor to the success of Toyota is due to effective Quality Management in the form of company practices that have been replicated all over the World by major organisation’s to date. Toyota engages a stringent management system based on founding principles of operations management and excellence, such as the Toyota Production System (TPS). By spearheading such programmes, Toyota has enjoyed substantial growth and worldwide success. Throughout this assignment I shall explore the importance of Toyota’s operations management schemes and measure the relative success of the overall strategic managements objectives. 1.1 The Importance of effective operations management in achieving organizational objectives of Toyota as a leading manufacturer and supplier of automobiles? Operations Management can be simply defined as the function of effectively and efficiently managing the process of production and business operations both internally and externally. A simple definition however does not do justice for the broad scope that encompasses operations management and the vital role it plays in making an organisation successful and competitive in today’s market. Companies that employ a successful operations management programme have strategic planning, tactical input and operational success. Companies that do not utilise this operations function face difficulties in market trend short sightedness and lack of competitive edge that can ultimately result in a decline of customers, loss of market share and eventual closure of the company. Operations management as a key strategy can be implemented through all facets of a company, from the front end of the company dealing with the customers, to the process side of the company dealing with developing a product or offering a service. To effectively engage operations management, is to maintain operations excellence, which in turn is the function of remaining consistent and never dropping below that set platform of quality. Toyota was a relatively unknown entity when it opened its first car dealership in the US in 1957, some 5 decades later it is the Worlds No. 1 automobile manufacturer. Toyota has achieved this greatly in part due to the successful operations management practices pioneered in the organisation. These practices can be seen as a benchmark for excellence and success. Such practices, as the world renowned Toyota Production System or TPS have become a way of life in the organisation. The TPS philosophy is to provide the best quality, lowest cost and shortest lead-time through the elimination of waste. The TPS incorporates an urge for effectiveness within the organisation, this has in turn driven Toyota’s success, by making Toyota effective in understanding it’s customers needs and efficiently and effectively catering for those needs. Corporate goals have trickled down throughout the company being driven by a revolutionary Toyota Production System that has secured an efficient f low of productivity from Toyota’s supply chain, to manufacturing and subsequently catering for the customers needs on both quality and value. This has given Toyota a competitive edge over other car manufacturers and has been a driving force behind its success. Once an effective quality management system is in place, it is important to maintain and improve on it, Toyota successfully does this through a process called â€Å"Kaizen.† Kaizen which literally means â€Å"Change† and â€Å"Good† is the process of breaking apart the current situation, analysing it and quickly putting it back together, in a better way, i.e. a change for good. With the Kaizen philosophy working hand in hand with the TPS, Toyota has been able to further reduce â€Å"Waste† and improve on company processes making the organisation more efficient, more effective and more competitive. Kaizen also encourages employees to be free thinkers, which is part of a decentralised management process that encourages innovation. Kaizen constantly determines new ways to improve on processes, be it in the manufacturing facility, supply chain, identifying market trends or administration processes, kaizen as an operations management function has helped Toyota become a leading manufacturer. Another technique that can be attributed to successful strategic operations management and is a major contributor to the company’s success is the offensive strategy applied by Toyota. Toyota is a long-term planner, not necessarily responding to quarterly numbers, but rather pioneering the technological advances. A good example of this is with the Toyota Prius Hybrid, which when it was launched in 2000, the price of fuel was still reasonable comparably to todays terms. This far sightedness has guaranteed Toyota success and earned them an image of being a pioneer of Green initiatives and helped them stay one step ahead of the competition. It is fair to say that Toyota’s massive success over the past few decades is due to a constant belief in strong management principles and the continuous advancement of these principles, innovation and strategic alignment. These principles all fall under effective operations management and if it wasn’t for Toyota’s continuous strive for strategic alignment, then the company would not be as successful as it is today. 1.2 Critically evaluate the success of existing operations management processes in meeting Toyota’s overall strategic management objectives To date, we can see that the overall effect of the operations management processes in place at Toyota is a very positive one. Toyota has become the Worlds number 1 automobile manufacturer greatly due to the processes and company principles implemented through operations management. The decentralised management philosophy has paved the way for free thinkers, innovation and has kept Toyota ahead of the game. The â€Å"Just in time† principle, one of the pillars of TPS has helped Toyota maintain a healthy production load and not overburdened itself with excess stock, therefore helping Toyota focus revenue on other streams. The principle of Kaizen has pushed Toyota to always seek to better itself and be more effective. These principles implemented by operations management can be seen in the â€Å"Global Vision Statement† of Toyota. Global Vision â€Å"Toyota will lead the way to the future of mobility, enriching lives around the world with the safest and most responsible ways of moving people. Through our commitment to quality, constant innovation and respect for the planet, we aim to exceed expectations and be rewarded with a smile. We will meet our challenging goals by engaging the talent and passion of people, who believe there is always a better way.† Toyota’s goals are clearly defined in the Global Vision statement above (www.toyota.com). Toyota has in most respects met that global visions statement and maintained it through the operations management processes in place. That is the rosy side to the knock on effects of Toyota’s operation management programmes, however, there is a downside too. Toyota, being famous for cost cutting initiatives but not at the expense of quality may have taken their own philosophy too far. In 2006 and 2007 Toyota faced a problem that they believed they would never face, a problem with quality. Toyota had to recall millions of cars due to faulty components. This came in the wake of massive earnings from profitable years before the problem occurred. These profits however were earned at the expense of cost cutting techniques and expanding too fast to manage the demand meeting the stringent Toyota quality standards. The recall did tarnish Toyota’s name somewhat in the market place, but they met this problem with the initiative we have come to expect from the World’s leading and innovative car manufacturer. Toyota quickly identified the problem and addressed it. It seemed to have occurred due to rapid expansion, having to open new manufacturing facilities and not being able to train staff the â€Å"Toyota way† due to lack of t ime to meet demand. This, I’m sure has served as a valuable lesson to Toyota, and has probably resulted in inward reviewing of the current operations management model; To what extent do we reduce â€Å"waste,† how many corners can we cut before we trade off or effect the quality of our product and inevitably the image of our brand? Another hurdle Toyota faced was the devastating natural disaster in the form of an earthquake and tsunami in 2011. This catastrophe shook the whole of Japan and the World. Toyota spearheaded the â€Å"Just in time† philosophy, an integral pillar of the Toyota Production system, that simply speaking means build what you need, when you need it. The principle behind this philosophy is sound, resulting in ease of production, less storage and less overheads, however in the wake of an unforeseen natural disaster it has huge negative consequences. Japan equates to 50-60% of Toyota’s total global manufacturing capabilities and also necessitates one of its largest supply chains. Due to the â€Å"Just in time† philosophy of only manufacturing products when required, Toyota faced a shortage of automobiles and supply chain products in the wake of the natural disasters that hit Japan. Other car manufacturers that have their global operations evenly spread throughout the World and within largest target markets and that also stock up on products would have been in a better position than Toyota to deal with the natural disaster that struck them. But as an overall evaluation of the operations management processes, you would be hard fetched to not be able to stand back and admire Toyota’s global success. Toyota has grown from a relatively unknown entity, into the World’s Number 1 automobile manufacturer. Toyota lost its crown as number 1 in 2011 after the devastating tsunami, but quickly bounced back to reclaim it in 2012, mainly due to its operations management processes and continuous strategic alignment. 2.1 List out top three quality initiatives and explain the importance of effective quality management and the role in achieving Toyota’s objectives Quality Management is vitally important if a company wishes to excel and compete effectively with its competition. Effective quality management can be introduced in many forms. I am going to discuss 3 of Toyota’s quality management processes that I have identified as having the most impact on overall operational excellence. Toyota Production System Kiichiro Toyoda the founder of the Toyota Automobile business firstly created the concept of â€Å"Just in time.† TPS was then further developed using this concept by Taichi Ohno the Toyota Chief of Production in the post World War 2 period. Toyota’s success as a leading automobile manufacturer is due to its unique production system. The concept of the TPS is to build the best quality, through the lowest cost, in the shortest lead-time through the elimination of waste. A simple definition can be found on the Toyota website; â€Å"The Toyota Production System (TPS) was established based on two concepts: The first is called â€Å"Jidoka† (which can be loosely translated as â€Å"automation with a human touch†) which means that when a problem occurs, the equipment stops immediately, preventing defective products from being produced; The second is the concept of â€Å"Just-in-Time,† in which each process produces only what is needed by the next process in a continuous flow.† (Toyota website www.toyota-global.com). The Just-in-Time philosophy involves 3 main aspects, TAKT Time, flow production and the pull system, which work together to form the main attributes of â€Å"Just-in-Time.† As is illustrated from the Toyota Production System â€Å"House,† the TPS as an operational management function aims to create a working harmony, that eliminates waste, develops efficiency through more automation and ultimately creates a better working environment that will benefit the customer. The use of â€Å"Jidoka† promotes fewer defects and when they do occur the problem can be rooted out immediately. TPS works as a solid foundation for the other operational management processes that are in place within Toyota and is an integral part of the company’s success. (This coupled with the ease of efficiently producing the highest quality product for the customer through the â€Å"Just-in-Time† philosophy has helped Toyota in achieving its objectives of being a leading manufacturer of the highest quality products. Kaizen Kaizen is a major factor when considering lean production techniques. The definition of Kaizen, which means â€Å"Change† and â€Å"Good† which equates to the meaning â€Å"A change for good,† literally is the process of making something better. Kaizen means breaking apart the current situation, analysing it and then putting it back together. A kaizen activity can last up to 5 days, in which a team is put to work to identify and significantly improve a process, through planning and then implementing it. A kaizen activity can result from a problem being identified or a need to improve on an aspect of the company manufacturing or process. The philosophy of Kaizen entails a process called â€Å"Gemba,† which is used for when a problem occurs, Toyota promotes going to the source of the problem, or going to the â€Å"Gemba†. Due to the automation or Jidoka in place, when a problem arises it is almost immediately identified and therefore less manufacturing defects arise. Gemba also encourages rooting out any problems straight away, it also entails developing a quick on the spot solution for an occurrence, until an effective one can be devised through the process of Kaizen. The technique of kaizen has been utilised by Toyota in developing a way of life within the organisation. Kaizen is promoted in every level and facet of the organisation. Employees are encouraged to be free thinkers and to constantly improve on processes, manufacturing techniques, time saving techniques and waste management. This has been fundamental in developing Toyota as a high quality and reliable brand name. The process of Kaizen is one of the top quality management initiatives that have been instrumental in Toyota reaching the top spot it enjoys today and of course maintaining that effectiveness. Supply Chain Management Supply Chain Management (SCM) plays a major contribution to the success of a company, or be it the failure if the SCM function is not effective. Toyota has a unique philosophy when it comes to managing their supply chain. Toyota considers suppliers as partners and therefore invests in them. Toyota carefully manages its supply chain, making sure that the complete process works on a pull system, pulling products from the supply chain and into the manufacturing cycle only when it is required. Toyota can even loan out workers and higher management to overlook the supply chain operations when demand is high. Toyota works on joint understanding and trust and encourages relationship-building exercises that add to the sleekness functioning of the whole process of working with and dealing with Toyota. By developing long-term partnerships, the suppliers become a part of the Toyota team and fit into the â€Å"Toyota way,† which in turn makes them a more effective partner for Toyota. In o rder to stay competitive Toyota encourages the lean manufacturing principle throughout its supply chain, giving the highest quality product, at the lowest cost in the shortest lead-time. Through this investment and relationship building, Toyota has created a SCM system that can be relied on for both quality and efficiency. Toyota has developed a strategy for every aspect of the supply chain from logistics, to quality management, just in time and lean production. Toyota, knowing it is solely responsible for its supply chain in its customer’s eyes, has effectively developed the supply chain to become a part of Toyota itself. Because of such attention to detail and effective operations management techniques Toyota has realised its goals of becoming a leading manufacturer of automobiles and has maintained that position greatly in part by maintaining a consistency of quality by ensuring their supply chain is always efficient and effective. 2.2 Discuss the level of success of existing quality management processes in meeting Toyota’s overall strategic management objectives Toyota has grown to see enormous worldwide success, due to its constant quest for excellence. The most visible part of this drive for excellence is Toyota’s manufacturing philosophy the Toyota Production System (TPS). The foundation for Toyota’s strategic management objectives can be seen in this Quote. Waste (â€Å"muda† in Japanese) is ‘anything other than the minimum amount of equipment, materials, parts, space, and worker’s time, which are absolutely essential to add value to the product.’ — Shoichiro Toyoda Founder, Toyota It has and always will be the underlying principle of Toyota to cut down on waste and deliver the best quality product in the most efficient way, which means developing a smooth obstacle free manufacturing process, with little waste and inventory. Toyota achieved its strategic management objectives through revolutionary cutting edge operations management techniques that have been replicated all over the World. These principles of lean manufacturing drastically reduce â€Å"Costs† that are associated with holding inventory, equipment, material, people resources and save time, which in itself has a value. This has successfully helped Toyota to become more competitive and increase its net profit making it a strong and durable leading automobile manufacturer. Conclusion After World War 2, Toyota was faced with the reality that change was necessary if it wanted to succeed and grow into an automobile manufacturer that could compete with the World’s giants such as Ford. If it weren’t for the Operations Management processes implemented and fine-tuned over the years then Toyota would never have got off the ground. It is evident that the constant strategic goal of operating more efficiently has been the crucial factor in Toyota’s success, coupled with the decentralised management philosophy, allowing the company to freely think and improve itself from an operational standing. Today, Toyota stands as an educational example of strategic excellence and a success story for people and companies to admire throughout the World. Reference http://www.toyota-global.com/sustainability/csr_initiatives/corporate_governance.html http://www.toyota-global.com/investors/ir_library/annual/pdf/2011/p35_37.pdf http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article.cfm?articleid=2423 http://mediabuzz.monster.com/news/articles/944-toyota-a-once-mighty-brand-tarnished-how-it-all-went-wrong http://www.forbes.com/sites/greatspeculations/2011/04/08/japan-quake-tsunami-take-heavy-toll-on-toyota/ http://www.advancebusinessconsulting.com/advance!/strategic-alignment/strategi c-alignment-business-cases/the-rise-of-toyota.aspx Toyota Scm .slidesContainer img { border: none } var slideshare_object = { flagging: {"update_url":"https://www.slideshare.net/main/flag?slideshow_id=5704145","is_flagged":false}, user: {"userGroup":"non-member","login":"guest","id":null,"loggedin":false,"name":null,"is_valid_fbuser":false,"fb_userid":null,"is_pro":"false","su":false,"is_test_user":false,"has_uploads":null,"is_li_connected":false,"is_li_auto_created_user":false,"show_li_connect_cta":false,"has_privacy_enabled":null,"li_tracking_url":"https://www.linkedin.com/li/track"}, timer: { start: (new Date()).getTime(), end: '', execTime: '' }, top_nav: { get_url: "/top_nav"}, li_bar: {get_url: "/li_bar"}, dev: false, init: [], feature_flag: [], is_ssl: true, rum_pagekey: "desktop_slideview_embed_code_loggedout", slideshow: { id: 5704145, is_clickgen_enabled: 'false', clickgen_url: '' } }; var _jspl = {} _jspl.pageInitTime = (new Date()).getTime(); window._gaq = []; _gaq.push(['_setAccount','UA-2330466-1']); _gaq.push(['_setDomainName', '.slideshare.net']); _gaq.push(['_addIgnoredRef', 'slideshare.net']); _gaq.push(['_setCustomVar', 2, 'document_referrer', document.referrer]); _gaq.push(['_trackPageview', '/embedPlayerView']); (function(){ // google analytics var ga = document.createElement('script'); ga.type = 'text/javascript'; ga.async = true; ga.src = ('https:' == document.location.protocol ? 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Wednesday, January 8, 2020

Personal Review And Reflection Paper - 1262 Words

Personal Review and Reflection Paper During the journey of my education, it was important to review and reflect on the activities and learning objectives that were completed. The purpose of this assignment was to discuss what was learned and what needed to be improved for the seven assignments that were required for this course, identify three valuable strengths with supporting evidence, identify three areas that need to be strengthened with supporting evidence, and list three goals with specific steps and time frame to help improve the areas to be strengthened. Summary of Each Assignment The following sections discussed the areas of what was learned and what needed improvement based on the professor’s feedback for the seven assignments.†¦show more content†¦I was able to stay one week ahead for this course, and by not having a deadline looming, it was less stressful. Another part of my feedback was to remember my focus breakers so that my productivity was not affected. I still need to remember to say no to things. I am still working on this. Week Three: Compare and Contrast Using APA Style Week three’s assignment was to compare and contrast the theories of Piaget and Vygosky using APA format. I learned more about APA format especially citing references. I spent a lot of time proofreading my paper. I need to become faster at completing this task. The feedback that I received on this assignment was that my assignment was clear, easy to follow, and organized. For the most part, I had a strong level of comprehension of the material. One item that was noted was that I needed to be more specific for the what can be gained section. My statements were to generalized, and I needed to have more specific statements. I will need to remember this as I progress through my degree and refer to the SQ3R reading strategy. I also needed to improve on my critically reflective paraphrasing. Week Four: Analyze Research Week four’s assignment was learning how to use the online library and finding sources. Overall, I understood how to use the online library, how to use search limiters and key words, and how to define peer-review. I found a relevant topic in education,Show MoreRelatedRn Lifereview Interview1252 Words   |  6 PagesSubmit by 2359 Saturday of Week 4. Name: Date: Overview: Life Review Analysis For this assignment, you will reflect on your interview with the older adult, introduce the individual to the reader, and respond to guiding questions to prepare an analysis paper. DO NOT INTERVIEW A FAMILY MEMBER UNLESS YOU OBTAIN COACH’S WRITTEN APPROVAL PRIOR TO INTERVIEW Your paper should include the following sections: 1. 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TOEFL SpeechRater Enhanced Speaking Scoring

TOEFL SpeechRater Enhanced Speaking Scoring At the 2019 TOEFL iBT Seminar in Seoul on September 5, ETS announced details of the new Enh...