Wednesday, July 31, 2019
Non -profit organization- an organization that is tax free and that serves the public interest. Their purposes are charitable, educational, scientific, religious or literary. Public expects to donate and their donations be deducted from their federal taxes. A legally non -profit org does not declare any profit and instead utilizing all the resources and revenue for its operating expenses. International Humanitarian City (IHC) Established in 2003 by HH Sheikh Mohammed Bin Rashid Al Maktoum, Vice-President and Prime Minister of the UAE and Ruler of Dubai, the International Humanitarian City (IHC) has grown to become the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest and busiest logistics hub for humanitarian aid with nine UN agencies and nearly 50 NGOs and commercial entities as members. Its expertise is in transport and logistics to work hand in hand with aid agencies on helping the victims of crises and families whose lives are scarred by poverty. IHC capabilities for delivering help is eight hours by air to two thirds of the world population some of the worst humanitarian crises that includes tsunami in Southeast Asia, recurring drought of Africa, Civil unrest in Afghanistan and Darfur and the 2010 earthquake in Haiti. IHC also has been engaged on emergency responses to Syria and Philippines Characteristics of Nonprofit Organization: Passion for Mission ( values Driven) Ã¢â¬â creativity, energy and dedication for the work Atmosphere of Scarcity Ã¢â¬â Shortage of resources, underdeveloped infrastructure may exist execution walls. Bias toward informality, participation and consensus- Dual bottom lines; Financial and Mission Program outcomes are difficult to assess Governing boards has both oversight and supporting roles Mixed skill level of staff Participation of volunteers Public Sector- Composed of organization that are owned and operated by the government. Includes Federal, provincial, state, or municipal governments, depending on where you live. RTA( Road and transport Authority) a public sector organization responsible for transport network in UAE, a versatile entity mandated to manage marine roads , metro and public transport through sub agencies. 5 basic Characteristics of public sector State Ownership: Owned by the state. It could be in the nature of Central, State or local government ownership or any instrumentality of the state too can have the ownership of public enterprise. Controlled by the state Its operation and administration controlled by government. The Government has the direct responsibility to manage the affairs of the enterprise through various devices and exercises control over it by means of a number of agencies and techniques. Public Responsibility: Public Enterprises owe accountability to people as they are funded through public money. This accountability is realized through legislature and its committees, ministers, audit institutions and other specialized agencies. Independence: Public Enterprises function with highest independence under given situations. They are free from day to day interference in their affairs and management. Coverage The public enterprise negotiates all areas and activities. There is hardly any field of activity, which is not covered by the operations of public enterprises. Stakeholder- a person, group of organizations that has interest or affect the organization or with reasonable interest to a given situation or enterprise Stakeholder Analysis- tools to identify the needs and concern of various stakeholders. It is a useful tool for; Gaining understanding and building harmony Communicating the benefits of a proposed project Building strong inclusive campaigns that involve the public Benefits; common problems that can be solves using analysis. Unnecessary focus on analytical tools Issues are too large of complex for decision makers The scope of study is too large Some stakeholder are left out There is no local ownership There is no commitment for implementation. Kinds of stakeholder; Primary stakeholder- direct beneficiaries and direct concerned person Secondary stakeholder- mediators in the process of delivering aid to primary stakeholder Opposition Stakeholder- those who have the capacity to affect outcomes unfavorably through the resources and influence they command. It is crucial to engage them in open dialogue Marginal stakeholder- such as women, indigenous people, and other needy groups Key stakeholder- have significant influence upon or importance within the organization. Stakeholder Analysis Process; Identify and man internal and external stakeholder Assess the nature of each stakeholders influence and importance Construct a matrix to identify stakeholder influence and importance Monitor and mange stakeholder relationship. Two type of stake holder; Direct stakeholder Ã¢â¬â directly connected to the organization Intermediary- who represent others Importance of stakeholder Support the overall movement of the organization which involves providing quality service e.g medical assistance, recovery missions and distributingÃ relief goods to affected areas. Influence the Non- profit organization- provides the opportunity to organization to share its goals and objective to join to other organizations which has the same missions and purpose. Clients and Volunteers Ã¢â¬â Free publicity from the clients who receive quality service from the organization and tell its story publicly, or shared it to their co- workers, friends and or can be featured to any media advertisement to support the cause and ask for funding. Identifying Stakeholder; Brainstorming-one way of identifying the stakeholder.Analyzing or making a list of stakeholder or even the type of stakeholder. Mapping-a usefull way of unlocking creativity and helping the ideas to flow. A diagram that shows a map or even a software that can use to map its stakeholder Stakeholder list- general list of stakeholder are the starting point to identify them. DoesnÃ¢â¬â¢t include many specialists in the industry or industry specific job titles. Previous projects- documentation from previous projects and communicating the projects team who is involve on the particular project or a particular client. Organization charts and directories- Company organization or directory also can help to identify a particular stakeholder. Reviewing the Social network sites, like LinkedIn advance people search to look for company stakeholder, industry, job title and seniority. OGC Stakeholder categories- finding it hard to find a potential stakeholder company can do the categorization process. Below is the category can use for identification; User/beneficiaries Governance Influencer ( trade unions, media ) Providers ( supplier, partners) Below diagram is a stakeholder mapping; Internal Stakeholder; ( IHC-non- profit Organization) Board Members Staff members/employees- the one who has direct interaction and involvedÃ during the crisis. One of the most important stakeholder on the organization, initiates activities of IHC consequently, concentrating on IHC mission and vision. Volunteers- individuals who are willing to help, lend a hand during the crisis Donors / Fund raiserÃ¢â¬â an individual or association that contributes in terms of kinds, monetary during crisis. Former member of the organization are still one to consider, provided they are still active in promoting it. Publicity- a person that may be an instrument for public awareness regarding the organizations existence. Fund raiser- a person who is involved for collecting funds from any group or individual who is willing to give their part. A fund raiser can collect through media and other concert for a cause. External Stake holder (IHC-Non- profit organization) Employers or politicians that create legislation encouraging the hiring of ex-addict. Suppliers of like foods and clothing to be distributed to the affected area they can take advantage of the event like selling other goods to other distributor on the market. Governmental bodies/civil society- a non- governmental society working in the field of exclusion. Competitors- Who has the same structure of business Media- TV, newspaper , TV channels Environment Ã¢â¬â place where humanitarian city is built, should have a friendly neighborhood, safety for the victims, stress free. Internal stakeholder ( RTA) Customer/Travelers- individuals who are rail users , who are experiencing the benefits Employees- who has direct interaction with the commuters Guards- Who assures safety of any travelers/ tourist, executed rules and regulations , Maintenance- who maintain the technical and mechanical problem of the RTA Cleaners- individuals who are responsible for cleaning the area including toilets, labatories and prayer rooms. Convenience store and other kiosk that are found on the station External Stakeholder (RTA) Governments- a group that executed/implements rules and regulation. State/federal agencies. Government agencies often devise and issue regulations and reporting requirements, and can sometimes make or break an effort by how they choose to regulate and how vigorously they enforce their regulations. Policy makers. Peoples or groups often have no official power Ã¢â¬â they may be Ã¢â¬Å"advisersÃ¢â¬ to those with real power Ã¢â¬â but their opinions and ideas are often followed closely. If theyÃ¢â¬â¢re on your side, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s a big plus. Media- commuters awareness (rates , maps and direction,) TV, Radio, Newspaper and magazine.
Christopher Lee Week 6 Portfolio BUSS 150, L. Fortune Bryant & Stratton College February 20, 2013 Large number of couples living together among unmarried couples have brought a lot of issues and a lot decision making in Congress. Same sex marriage and extend Employment benefit to domestic partners have been hot topic for years. Base on heavy studies of unmarried committed partners there a law that determine the will of a person who die and that is the law of interstate.The result indicate that for some groups of unmarried committed partners, will studies may not adequately reflect the extent to which intestate decedants wish their partners to share in the estate. The statute of frauds is invoked by a defendant in a breach of contract action. If the defendant can establish that the contract he has failed to perform is legally unenforceable because it has not satisfied the requirement of the statute, then the defendant cannot be liable for its breach.For example, the written contract b een a genuine prenuptial agreement, it would have been fine. It did exactly what a Ã¢â¬Å"pre-nupÃ¢â¬ is supposed to do, that is, it explained the terms of the agreement in specific, understandable language. However, it was not really a pre-nup, and that single fact gave the court pausehe statute of frauds will prevent the plaintiff from recovering thewhat a Ã¢â¬Å"pre-nupÃ¢â¬ is supposed to do, that is, it explained the terms of the agreement in specific, understandable language.The actual written agreement those satisfied all the requirments because services have been performed based upon a contract that is unenforceable because of the statute of frauds, the value of those services can nevertheless be recovered on the basis of quantum meruit, or the reasonable value of those services. Ã¢â¬Å"Shaping public policy is a complex and multifaceted process that involves the interplay of numerous individuals and interest groups competing and collaborating to influence policymakers to act in a particular way.These individuals and groups use a variety of tactics and tools to advance their aims, including advocating their positions publicly, attempting to educate supporters and opponents, and mobilizing allies on a particular issue. Ã¢â¬ (Wolf Robert) The Wilcox opinion extends to cohabitants the right to recover on written contracts. However, serious questions are left unanswered regarding the enforceability of oral agreements, whether recovery is permissible on implied contracts, and whether recovery by equitable means is possible.The principal would have make since in modern world because he probably never would have guessed that it would have legal ramifications long after his death. I'd be surprised if anyone could name social norms anymore. Ã¢â¬Å"NormalityÃ¢â¬ is being faught by the counter-culture, and with that goes society. Work Cited Law of Human Behavior, Vol 22(5) Oct 1988, 479-499 Wolf, Robert, Ã¢â¬Å"Definition of Policy Analysis PalioÃ¢â¬â¢s Ristorante Christopher Lee Week 6 Portfolio BUSS 150, L. Fortune Bryant & Stratton College February 20, 2013 Large number of couples living together among unmarried couples have brought a lot of issues and a lot decision making in Congress. Same sex marriage and extend Employment benefit to domestic partners have been hot topic for years. Base on heavy studies of unmarried committed partners there a law that determine the will of a person who die and that is the law of interstate.The result indicate that for some groups of unmarried committed partners, will studies may not adequately reflect the extent to which intestate decedants wish their partners to share in the estate. The statute of frauds is invoked by a defendant in a breach of contract action. If the defendant can establish that the contract he has failed to perform is legally unenforceable because it has not satisfied the requirement of the statute, then the defendant cannot be liable for its breach.For example, the written contract b een a genuine prenuptial agreement, it would have been fine. It did exactly what a Ã¢â¬Å"pre-nupÃ¢â¬ is supposed to do, that is, it explained the terms of the agreement in specific, understandable language. However, it was not really a pre-nup, and that single fact gave the court pausehe statute of frauds will prevent the plaintiff from recovering thewhat a Ã¢â¬Å"pre-nupÃ¢â¬ is supposed to do, that is, it explained the terms of the agreement in specific, understandable language.The actual written agreement those satisfied all the requirments because services have been performed based upon a contract that is unenforceable because of the statute of frauds, the value of those services can nevertheless be recovered on the basis of quantum meruit, or the reasonable value of those services. Ã¢â¬Å"Shaping public policy is a complex and multifaceted process that involves the interplay of numerous individuals and interest groups competing and collaborating to influence policymakers to act in a particular way.These individuals and groups use a variety of tactics and tools to advance their aims, including advocating their positions publicly, attempting to educate supporters and opponents, and mobilizing allies on a particular issue. Ã¢â¬ (Wolf Robert) The Wilcox opinion extends to cohabitants the right to recover on written contracts. However, serious questions are left unanswered regarding the enforceability of oral agreements, whether recovery is permissible on implied contracts, and whether recovery by equitable means is possible.The principal would have make since in modern world because he probably never would have guessed that it would have legal ramifications long after his death. I'd be surprised if anyone could name social norms anymore. Ã¢â¬Å"NormalityÃ¢â¬ is being faught by the counter-culture, and with that goes society. Work Cited Law of Human Behavior, Vol 22(5) Oct 1988, 479-499 Wolf, Robert, Ã¢â¬Å"Definition of Policy Analysis
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
Webster Dictionary defines paradigm as Ã¢â¬Å"an example or pattern: small, self-contained, simplified examples that we use to illustrate procedures, processes, and theoretical points. Ã¢â¬ The most quoted definition of paradigm is Thomas Kuhn's (1962, 1970) concept in The Nature of Science Revolution, i. e. paradigm as the underlying assumptions and intellectual structure upon which research and development in a field of inquiry is based. The other definitions in the research literature include: Patton (1990): A paradigm is a world view, a general perspective, a way of breaking down the complexity of the real world. Paradigm is an interpretative framework, which is guided by Ã¢â¬Å"a set of beliefs and feelings about the world and how it should be understood and studied. Ã¢â¬ (Guba, 1990). Denzin and Lincoln (2001) listed three categories of those beliefs: Ontology: what kind of being is the human being. Ontology deals with the question of what is real. Epistemology: what is the relationship between the inquirer and the known: Ã¢â¬Å"epistemology is the branch of philosophy that studies the nature of knowledge and the process by which knowledge is acquired and validatedÃ¢â¬ (Gall, Borg, & Gall, 1996) Methodology: how do we know the world, or gain knowledge of it? When challenging the assumptions underlying positivism, Lincoln and Guba (2000) also identified two more categories that will distinguish different paradigms, i. e. beliefs in causality and oxiology. The assumptions of causality asserts the position of the nature and possibility of causal relationship; oxiology deals with the issues about value. Specific assumptions about research include the role of value in research, how to avoid value from influencing research, and how best to use research products (Baptiste, 2000). Dill and Romiszowski (1997) stated the functions of paradigms as follows: Define how the world works, how knowledge is extracted from this world, and how one is to think, write, and talk about this knowledge Define the types of questions to be asked and the methodologies to be used in answering Decide what is published and what is not published Structure the world of the academic worker Provide its meaning and its significance Two major philosophical doctrines in the social science inquiry are positivism and postpositivism. The following is a contrast of the research approach that are entailed from these two different philosophical paradigms. Positivism Postpostivism Philosophical Inquiry The physical and social reality is independent of those who observe it Observation of this reality, if unbiased, constitutes scientific knowledge. Behavioral researchers in education and psychology exemplify an approach to scientific inquiry that is grounded in positivist epistemology. Social reality is constructed by the individuals who participate it. It is constructed differently by different individuals. This view of social reality is consistent with the constructivist movement in cognitive psychology, which posts that individuals gradually build their own understandings of the world through experience and maturation. The mind is not tabula rasa (blank slate) upon which knowledge is written. Research Design The inquiry focuses on the determination of the general trends of a defined populations. The features of the social environment retain a high degree of constancy across time and space. Local variations are considered Ã¢â¬Å"noiseÃ¢â¬ Ã · Study of samples and population Generalization: first defining the population of interest, select a representative of the population, the researcher generalizes the findings obtained from studying the sample to the larger population using the statistical techniques to determine the likelihood that sample findings are likely to apply to the population. The scientific inquiry must focus on the study of multiple social realities, i. e. the different realities created by different individuals as they interact in a social environment. Find a ways to get individuals to reveal their constructions of social realities, including the person being studied and the researcher. Reflexivity: focus on the researcher's self as an integral constructor of the social reality being studied The study of ndividuals' interpretations of social reality must occur at the local, immediate level. Study of cases: have you learned something about his case that informs us about another cases? Generalization of case study findings must be made on a case-by-case basis. In other words, it is the reader who made the generalization based on his or her own interpretation: The focus is on the transferability instead of generalization. Data Collection and Design. The use of mathematics to represent and analyze features of social reality is consistent with positivist epistemology: a particular feature can be isolated and conceptualized as a variable. The variables can be expressed as a numerical scales. Deductive analysis: identify underlying themes and patterns prior to data collection and searching through the data for instances of them: hypothesis testing Focuses on the study of individual cases and by making Ã¢â¬Å"thickÃ¢â¬ verbal descriptions of what they observe. Analytic induction: search through data bit by bit and then infers that certain events or statements are instances of the same underlying themes or patterns View of causality A mechanistic causality among social objects Individuals' interpretation of situations cause them to take certain actions Lincoln and Guba (2000) made the following distinctions between positivist and naturalist inquiries. Positivist Naturalist Reality is single, tangible, and fragmentable. Realities are multiple, constructed, and holistic. Dualism: the knower and the known are independent. The knower and the known are interactive and inseparable. Time and context free generalizationOnly time-and context-bound working hypotheses are possible. Real causes, temporally precedent to or simultaneous with their effects (causal relationship)All entities are in a state of mutual simultaneous shaping, so that it is impossible to distinguish causes from effects. Inquiry is value free. Inquiry is value bounded.
The film Ã¢â¬Å"The Blind SideÃ¢â¬ , is a very inspirational film. This film is a story of Michael Oher, a homeless African-American teenager from a broken home, taken in by the Tuohys', a wealthy white family who help him fulfill his potential. At the same time, Michael's presence in the Tuohy's lives leads them to some insightful self-discoveries of their own. Living in his new environment, Michael faces a completely different set of challenges to overcome. As a football player and student, Mike works hard and, with the help of his coach and adopted family, becomes an All-American offensive left tackle. The family received many things from accepting Mike. The Tuohy family received a pleasure out of adopting Michael, which could have been considered Hedonistic. The relationship between pleasure and goodness is also discussed. The Tuohy's decision to take in Mike shows a great deal of kindness. I think the kind of pleasure the Tuohy family got out of the adoption was love and happiness. Since when they welcomed Michael into their home, Michael brought the Tuohy family closer than they were before they had met Mike, which created more love within the family and between the Tuohy's and Michael. An example of when Mike brought the whole family closer was when it was Thanksgiving Day. The Tuohys' gathered around the television to watch football while eating Thanksgiving dinner but Michael went to the dinner table. When Leigh Anne realized that Michael sat down at the dinner table I think she felt this warmth inside herself, so she decided that the whole family should be eating dinner together at the dinner table. While the Tuohy family got closer they also allowed Mike feel the feeling of love they were feeling and eventually they adopted him. By the end of the film the pleasure the Tuohys' got out of the adoption was love and happiness because they saved a teenage boy's life, from whatever his future might have beheld for him if they hadn't met, whether it be from death or a terrifying lonely life. The term Hedonism refers to people whose sole pursuit in life is pleasure. John D. Rockfeller once said Ã¢â¬Å"I can think of nothing less pleasurable than a life devoted to pleasure. Ã¢â¬ I personally don't believe that one should spend their whole life pursuing pleasure because the satisfaction one receives from pleasure will be gone sooner or later, then they will find themselves running after pleasure again. But the Tuohys' pleasure to why they adopted Mike could be Hedonistic because the pleasure of love, being loved and giving love, can result in happiness and also the pleasure of happine ss; seeking happiness, could also result in happiness. And as long as they remember the life they changed, they would be forever satisfied. The Tuohys' had shown a great amount of pleasure and goodness. Goodness is the quality of being good and pleasure is a feeling of happy satisfaction and enjoyment. I think the relationship between pleasure and goodness in the film is that one could lead to the fulfilment of the other. An example of this from The Blind Side was when the Tuohys' saw Michael walking down the street in a t-shirt and shorts while it was pouring rain. After Michael talked to Leigh Anne about where he was going to stay for the night she decided that he'll stay over at their house for the night not thinking twice about her decision. If others were in this position they wouldn't think twice about letting him into their home, let alone even ask him where he was headed. Because Leigh Anne performed a quality of goodness that one night, it created the pleasure of love and happiness. One act of goodness lead to a pleasure being fulfilled. In conclusion, in The Blind Side, The Tuohy family received the pleasure of love and happiness as an outcome of adopting Michael. And also the act of goodness can lead to the fulfillment of a pleasure; goodness and pleasure are interconnected. Lastly, the pleasures that the Tuohys' seek can be considered as Hedonistic. Ã¢â¬Å"Too often we underestimate the power of a touch, a smile, a kind word, a listening ear, an honest compliment, or the smallest act of caring, all of which have the potential to turn a life aroundÃ¢â¬ (Leo Buscaglia) is a quote of pleasure I very much agree with.
Monday, July 29, 2019
Response to Nelson Mandelas Freedom Speech - Essay Example The speech has been written from a South African perspective and it has some cultural connotations about the aspect of togetherness which is treated as a very important aspect towards achievement of freedom. Contextually, the speech tries to portray the idea that united people are likely to emerge victors in the fight against oppression. For instance, young people are referred to as Ã¢â¬Ëyoung lionsÃ¢â¬â¢ in the speech. In this case, the imagery is meant to emphasize the essence of unity given that the lions thrive on this unity in the jungle. This speech is written in the context of promoting peace and freedom among South Africans. This is reflected by the following statement: Ã¢â¬Å"I have fought against white domination and I have fought against black domination.Ã¢â¬ Ladies and gentlemen, friends, comrades and fellow South Africans here present, I greet you all and I wish peace for all. Thank you for giving me this opportunity to speak to you about Nelson MandelaÃ¢â¬â¢s Free From Jail Speech. I am AntjieKrog, many of you know me as a reporter and poet in both English and Afrikaans. To those who know me, you may recall how Nelson Mandela is a dear friend to me and how he has influenced my life in different ways. Therefore, I would like to pay tribute to this legendary hero through presenting a speech dedicated to Mr. Nelson Mandela. Friends, colleagues and fellow South Africans, may I draw your attention to the words of Nelson Mandela which he said during his trial in 1964: Ã¢â¬Å"I have fought against white domination and I have fought against black domination. I have cherished the ideal of a democratic and free society in which all persons live together in harmony and with equal opportunity. It is an ideal that I hope to live for and to achieve. But if needs be, it is an ideal for which I am prepared to dieÃ¢â¬ . For years, Mandela was banned from participating in social and political gatherings and was kept under strict police surveillance just because he had the courage
International Business Assignment - Essay Example For instance, Ricarodo-Millian viewpoint indicated, not only did the United States make productivity gains by free trade with Eastern nations even the Eastern nations were able to improve their per capita income, though only up to a fraction of the United StatesÃ¢â¬â¢ per capita income. Moreover, free trading nations could harness the potential of each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s strengths in exchange for weaknesses. This concept emerged from the way United States traded for certain products, like agricultural produce and manufacturing, with Eastern nations that had huge potential for production of these items, it also exported electronic and technical goods to the Eastern nations that were relatively less evolved in terms of those goods. Classical economics about free trade proposes that such trading actually nullifies all potential imbalances that would eventually follow increased trading between nations. As per Ricardian principles, unemployment is temporary. However, this temporary phase ca nnot be defined as the US labor force has been experiencing job losses for more than 3 decades, which started when the US started free trade with neighboring nations through the NAFTA during 1994 by outsourcing manufacturing jobs to Mexico (Iyer, 2005). This resulted in loss of more than 750,000 jobs in the US. Considering that the same scenario continued with other NAFTA members such as the Philippines, Canada, and some European countries. This resulted in an increased number of exports from these countries into the US, thereby addressing all their economic deficit issues. Following job losses in the manufacturing units of the US, even the service industry began outsourcing jobs to Eastern developing countries like India. This increased job losses for most of the IT and IT enabled service personnel in the US. These shifts in economics and labor markets from economics perspective resulted in bringing about balance between different nations in terms of growth, GDP and per capita inco me. Samuelson (2004) asserts that free trade has only lowered the labor-market by clearing real wages because the market moved to places with high supply of labor at lower wages. However, Giddens (2011) points out that the global electronic economy provides such opportunities to individuals at one corner of the world to actually shake up what once seemed as rock-solid economies. Globalization has pushed many economies downwards by pressurizing local autonomy, as incase of the US and European companies. Some economists believed that job losses would not render people of the rich countries to be idle, but would push them harder towards new inventions, which would benefit their economy. Although inventions have happened in the US, these inventions were insufficient to provide jobs for all jobless people; this further increased economic inequalities in rich nations, like the US, too. Free trade policies have undoubtedly improved living standards of most of the people in developing natio ns, which has thus resulted in an increase in consumption, costs, and demand for manufactured products, natural resources and agricultural produces. Most of the developing nations have liberalized regulations on foreign direct investment, which has given greater push for retailers to expand into newer
Sunday, July 28, 2019
Zara IT for Fast Fashion - Case Study Example From this paper it is clear that information technology has enabled Zara to disrupt existing technology applied in the clothing retail industry by other companies such as Inditex. Zara applies point on sale (POS) to serve its client instead of normal tallying of products at the counter. Zara switched DOS operating system to mouse technique in order to speed up its transaction at the counter. This approach made Zara compete other exiting companies such Gap, H&M, and Inditex among other clothing companies. The idea was to penetrate the market using a technology, which was not existing. Largely, Zara was able to serve clients in markets, which had competitors.This study highlights thatÃ Zara was able to acquire more customers in a flooded market. Introduction of unique technology outweigh the preexisting technology thus reducing efficiency of the technology in comparison to the modern technology. For instance, introduction of point on sale operating system influenced the speed of comp leting transactions at the counter. Its application influences the number of clients willing to buy product from the store because many clients would like to spare time. Disruptive companies introduce products, which increase efficiency and effectiveness. Point on sale is effective because it interpret the price of the product at a glance. It redeems time because it can handle many clients at very short time. Uniqueness in product delivery usually influences consumer behavior in the market.... Point on sale is effective because it interpret the price of the product at a glance. It redeems time because it can handle many clients at very short time. Uniqueness in product delivery usually influences consumer behavior in the market. Queuing in a large store such as Zara is hectic because of large volume of clients served. Efficiency of the service provided would influence clients to buy products from the store. Apparel Industry Model Gap spends much money on advertisement because its products do not command large market share or influence. The objective of advertising is to create awareness about the existence of the product in the market and to influence consumers to buy the products (Businessweek. 2007). Gap takes long before introducing new apparel in the market. The month of August dominates the period when Gap introduced its product in the market. Gap primarily manufactures its goods in San Francisco, United States (Engler, 2004). Gap primary sources of risk in manufactur ing include delay in logistics, which influences the time a product arrives in the market. The company risks introducing out of fashion products because of the shipping time. Fashion influences retailing of clothing apparel. Gap makes money by selling its products in various markets. Gap competitive advantage is production of anti-sweat products, which many clients seem to like. Zara customer characteristics ZaraÃ¢â¬â¢s customer characteristic consists of you people who are quick to respond to fashions in the market (Inditex 2011). Age influence demand and taste for products. Zara directs its product to young people who dwell in cities. City dwellers like responding to change in fashion by buying new products introduced. This consumer behavior has influenced
IFRS and GAAP Convergence - Term Paper Example International Accounting Standard Board issues the IFRS. Over 100 countries across the world have completely adopted IFRS. European Union, New Zealand, Australia and Russia are the prominent examples (Garg, 2010). GAAP GAAP exhibits fair, complete and clear financial operation of the enterprise. It comprises of authoritative pronouncement issued by several accounting bodies. GAAP is a set of rules, concepts, conversions and procedures to denote accepted accounting practices at a specified time. The corporate accounts and the financial statements are presented in accordance with the GAAP. It considers the conceptual framework of financial statements, accounting principles, Income Tax Act and most importantly requirements of the regulatory bodies of a country (Sangani, 2010). Convergence In this case, the term Ã¢â¬ËconvergenceÃ¢â¬â¢ implies the harmonization of the accounting standards. ... Companies across the world have already acknowledged the importance of the adoption of global accounting standards or the convergence. Most of the countries used local GAAP and recently adopted IFRS. Meanwhile there are few countries that are still reported to be under both the accounting standards. It is really time consuming and costly way to report financial records as conversion take much time and moreover it creates uncertainties among the users of the financial reports. Therefore, it can be suggested that countries should go for convergence. The US is in the planning phase of the convergence of the IFRS and the US GAAP, as according to the work plan of the SEC it will take another four to five years for complete convergence. Impact of the Convergence Impact of the convergence differs from companies to companies. It mainly depends upon the nature of the business. It is evident that the number of users of financial reporting is quite higher for the public companies in comparison to the private companies. Hence, impact of convergence on public companies will be higher as well. Several elements exist in the financial statements of the public companies and therefore, a few expertises are required to interpret the data. At the same time, level of difficulty is also high due to the responsibilities of the finance manager. At the planning phase of the convergence or during the convergence, companies need to report under both the accounting standards and it increases the complications for both the finance managers and the users of the financial statements. This issue is mostly faced by the multinational companies. They need to prepare financial
Saturday, July 27, 2019
Adoptive Children, it's in Their Genes - Essay Example The abstract suggests that certain personality traits can either be learned or simply inherited. The article presents the case of Jenae Neiderhise whose biological traits resemble that of her adoptive parents. However, her difference with them is marked by her educational achievement as she finished her doctoral degree. She is currently a psychology professor. On the contrary, the adoptive family had family members who werenÃ¢â¬â¢t able to finish college. Jenae tried to research about her biological family and later learned that some of her relatives were also highly-educated. As a consequence, she took interest in researching about genetics, particularly that of adoptive families. In fact, she is not just an ordinary researcher. Her findings were even funded by the National Institutes of Health, an institution that studies families and open adoption. The early findings of her research were presented in earlier issues of the journal. Nevertheless, the article presents the following interesting revelations that Neiderhise stumbled upon her research: Other important findings such as impact of inheritance on religiousness, environmental impact, aggression, academic achievement and ability to bond were included in the article. In conclusion, the article illustrated that genetics still play a role in most traits although it does not fully answer the question: nurture or nature? Rather, the article asserts that interaction of environment with good genetic factors is the real thing. It argues that: Ã "The way you parent has an impact on your child, but part of the way you parent is determined by your child," says Neiderhiser. "Its not your fault if things go wrong, nor do you get all the credit if things go
Familial Genetic Testing Assignment - Essay Example Genetic and environmental factors are responsible for occurrence of type 1 diabetes. Even though the exact causes are not yet known, many factors that relates to biological body structure or to a personÃ¢â¬â¢s external environment have been associated with risks of type 1 diabetes. Genetic factors to type 1 diabetes relates to HLA genes in the body. The genes form complexes among themselves and help the bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s immune system to distinguish between bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s proteins and foreign proteins to the body. The immune system then destroys foreign proteins. Certain complexes of these genes however fail to distinguish the proteins and leads to destruction of insulin. The percentage of type 1 diabetes incidences that result from the genetic factor is however low because only five percent of people with the gene complexes suffers from the complication (Genetic Home Reference 1). Probability of suffering from the complication, based on genes also supports the theory of genetic cause. This is because a person whose close relative suffers from type 1 diabetes has a six percent chance of being a victim while a person who does not have a close relative suffering from the complication has as low as 0.05 percent of being a victim (National Health Services 1). Other factors such as Ã¢â¬Å"viral infections, nutritional exposures, perinatal factors, childhood growthÃ¢â¬ among other environmental factors have been associated with the disease as moderators (Eisenbarth 267). Major symptoms of the type 1 diabetes are a feeling of itchiness around genital areas, impaired vision, muscle pain, and skin infection. Based on the role of genes and environmental factors, genetic factors account for a significant percentage of the symptoms than environmental factors. This is because of the secondary scope of environmental factors to the symptoms. Urine test and blood test exist for confirming diagnosis based on observed symptoms. There is no curative treatment for type
Different aspects of domestic violence - Essay Example It is this definition that has been the basis of evolution for policing policies as applied to domestic violence. The trend in policing today is for the police department to compose of a triage. For example, in many police departments across the United States, when an officer responds to a domestic violence call, he/she may contact the dispatcher, who will call the Crisis Center for Women 24-hour hot line. Then the Crisis Center sends a response van to the scene and will transport the victim and children to the Center's shelter. The Center will also provide transportation to court appearances and provide court advocacy. This on-scene response is available for all situations, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. After the on-scene response is complete, the case is turned over to the domestic violence unit, which consists of two full-time investigators who handle all incoming cases. Defenders of mandatory arrest and prosecution policies contend that battered women are too helpless and fearful to make appropriate decisions about the arrest or prosecution of their attackers. While this may be true for some women, preliminary evidence shows that the option to decide sometimes provides the perfect avenue for expressing unrealized strength and power. Accordingly, it is premature to judge whether the mandatory rule is actually working. A great deal of the responsibility for preparing for and responding to terrorist events rests with local police departments. Community policing presents an overarching philosophical orientation that agencies can use to better deal with the threat of terrorist events and the fear that they may create. The community policing philosophy can be roughly divided into three interrelated elements: organizational change, problem solving, and external partnerships. Each element applies to the issues of terrorism prevention and response, as well as to fear. Since 9/11, the federal government has greatly increased terrorism prevention and response efforts. However, a large degree of responsibility for dealing with these threats and for alleviating citizen fear rests at the local level. To some degree, the majority of local police departments in the United States have worked to reduce the fear of future terrorist attacks and to prevent and plan for attacks. Law enforcement officials are strategi cally rethinking public security procedures and practices to maximize the potential of their resources. The philosophy of community policing is important for police in preparing for possible terrorist acts and in responding to the fear they may create. Community policing involves broadening the nature and number of police functions compared to traditional policing models. It emphasizes organizational change, active problem solving, and external partnerships to address issues that concern both the police and citizens. In recent years, the philosophy of community policing appears to have been adopted to differing degrees by a large number of law enforcement entities in the United St
CASE STUDY; CAR COSTS ARE CUT THROUGH NEW TECHNOLOGY - Essay Example This is the reason for fall in the price of palladium in the following months. As per the theory of economics, the price of a commodity increases when its demand increases in the market. Similarly, the price falls in the event of fall in the demand for the same. The same has happened in the case of Palladium. Though Mazda has not announced by when the new technology would be used, the market expected a downfall in the demand for the commodity if automobile industry adopts the new catalyst. Thus, the demand of palladium is changed due to change in non price factor, that is, technology. Therefore the demand curve shifts downwards with no change in supply. Subsequently the price will reduce to reach at a new equilibrium. This phenomenon can be explained using figure 1 below. Let D1 be the existing demand curve of palladium. When the news of new technology came up, the demand curve shifted to D3. This means that the quantity of Palladium that is demanded by the industry is reduced and so the price also gets reduced to adjust to the change in quantity demanded. Same can also be seen in the case of supply curve figure 2. (Webshells, 2010) When demand for palladium is reduced, there is an oversupply created in the market. Due to the oversupply the supply curve s0 is shifted to s2. Therefore the price comes down to adjust to the market. Technological breakthroughs are very much important in automobile industry. Only technology adoption can help automobile companies to reduce the cost of production. Take the case of new innovation by Mazda. As per the technology, palladium usage can be reduced by 90%. Palladium being one of the most expensive metals in the world, the cost saved by the company by adopting this technology is huge. The savings in cost will help the companies to charge less for the cars and thus companies can introduce low cost cars in the market. Tata has done a
Friday, July 26, 2019
Rhetoric - Essay Example Having learned the history of rhetoric, I realized that this 'art of persuasion' deserts delight and respect. According to the historical chronicles, our understanding of rhetoric rises from the fifth century B.C. in Athens, Greece.The word implied a use of words, even a manipulation of words. The main stress was on public speaking, as at that time people didn't need to write down their thoughts, so they expressed themselves in oral mode. Aristotle was the philosopher who first gave detailed explanation of rhetoric. He suggested that logic was one of many available means of persuasion. "People could also be persuaded by an appeal to emotions or to the character of the speaker, for example"4. During the Renaissance, after the printing had been invented, rhetorical concepts were applied on a large scale to written discourse. But as books were quite rare, teaching had a form of "lecture," which implied reading aloud from a book so that the students could note the most significant things. In the twentieth century, rhetoric is still popular, but it was a little modified during its 26-century history.
Teams and organizations lead by two leaders - Essay Example Of course, initiating and sustaining morale among teams are not an easy task to do. Organizations need great leaders such as participative and transformative types of leaders to ensure sufficient levels of morale abound. Teams led by both transformative and participatory leaders have their morale bolstered. On the one hand, participatory leaders inspire creativity and encourage members of a team to engage in both decisions and projects. As a result, team members develop high levels of morale, job satisfaction, and productivity. Participatory leaders can motivate them to work hard by making team members feel in control, (Montero, 2013). On the other hand, transformation leaders inspire teams since they expect the best results from them. This leads to high engagement and productivity from all the people in the organization or teams (Donna, Middleton, Montana, & Simpson, 2006). Therefore, both participatory and transformative leadership spur open communication that develops team motivation. To this end, transformative leaders and participatory leaders can work together to motivate teams within an organization. Although both transformative and participatory leaders can work together seamlessly, evidence shows that transformative leaders serve organizations better than participatory leaders. Police heads who choose to inspire, give intellectual stimulation, and set a vision, are more effective than those who do not do that. Also, evidence shows that transformative leaders can have a greater positive impact on their subordinates than other directors. On the other hand, limited evidence exists regarding the impact of shared leadership initiatives exhibited by participatory leaders (English, 2006). In my view, transformational leaders are more influencing compared to participatory leaders. If directors apply transformational leadership styles with integrity, they can
Thursday, July 25, 2019
Politics of Equality - Essay Example "Democratic societies are those in which the authority of those who govern is derived from the will of the people (typically determined by some form of vote). These societies are liberal to the extent that they are organized to guarantee basic liberties (such as freedom of expression, and religious practice) as well as various protections (for example, against discrimination, coercion, and abuse) to all society members in pursuit of a good life." (Shweder, Minow, and Markus 2004 P. 2). The differences among the liberal democracies in the modern world have been the primary cause for different experiences for the minority groups. The 'culturalist' ethos of 'multiculturalism has been a relevant issue in the Politics of Migration and Ethnicity, though 'culturalism' cannot be regarded as equivalent to 'culture'. One of the most essential consequences of the hiatus of the discussions on the changing configurations of the power relations of economic, political, and cultural elements has bee n the need for meaningful discussions about 'cultural difference' in relation to the politics of equality and justice. ... tural differences, one of the essential questions for the Politics of Migration and Ethnicity to consider is whether it is enviable for us now to abandon the politics of equality in favour of cultural differences. To answer to this essential question, this profound analysis of the topic presumes that it is extremely desirable for the Politics of Migration and Ethnicity now to abandon the politics of equality in favour of cultural differences. The essential question whether it is enviable for us now to abandon the politics of equality in favour of cultural differences engages one in an examination of the challenges on multiculturalism in contemporary liberal democracies. Cultural diversity is the crude reality of modern era which is the product of various processes such as globalisation and growing migration across borders. In this rapidly globalising world, the mounting number of people migrating to better destinations, due mainly to labour market opportunities abroad and political turmoil back home, has resulted in an important global situation of 'one nation and many cultures'. These realities of the modern multicultural environment also raise central questions concerning politics of equality and cultural differences. "Given global economic developments and emerging cultural and political trends, liberal democracies face not only burgeoning numbers of immigrants, but also their own hidden assumptions about the scope and limits of tolerance for cultural diversity. The particular history (or lack of history) of prior struggles over racial and religious diversity within each nation sets the legal and political framework for responses to current immigrants." (Shweder, Minow, and Markus 2004 P. 4). Therefore, the central issues of the cultural differences in the
Human wk10 - Essay Example These were questions that came to my mind when I started reading this chapter. Reeve (2009) points to research that suggests that extroverts are happier than introverts but I am not sure this is true. I know several introverts who live very happy lives without having to be very social. When I think about teens in Liberia, I would think that many of them would be happy with their lives because they may have no reason not to be happy. As an example, these children may all have similar experiences that move them more towards happiness than towards sadness. Many of the girls will be motivated to achieve more because they are feeling happy. Reeve (2009) states that arousal is important when thinking about motivation. The inverted-U curve suggests that when someone has a low level of arousal they are more likely to have a poor level of performance. In my understanding, arousal could be seen as engagement. In other words, if someone is engaged in learning, they are more prone to follow thro ugh with their goals. The girls may have a low level of arousal in the beginning, but if their education is stimulating and begins to engage them, they would be more prone to have a higher level of arousal. I would also think that stress would come into play with else girls because they may not have been in a classroom or formal education in the past. This could initially mean that they could become overly aroused. Reeves states that this could cause anxiety and other negative emotions that could impede their progress. When looking at personality and goal achievement, Jayasurija, Caputi, Gregory and Meloche (2007) found that students with a high achievement motivation were more prone to develop self-efficacy skills in computer use. They saw that goal orientation was a personality trait for those students who were the most motivated were more prone to develop self-efficacy skills in computer use. They saw that goal orientation was a personality trait for those students who were the m ost motivated to achieve their goals. Lee, Sheldon, and Turban (2003) suggest that individuals must have an understanding of self-control in order to develop strong mental focus. Mental focus helps an individual become more involved in their goal orientation, thus allowing a student to have a way to feel more positive about achieving their goals. Mental focus would also help in perceived control when an individual has challenges sticking to their goal. Students in Liberia may have difficulty understanding how to set and achieve goals but it would seem that their personalities would show quickly as to those who would have a higher or lower level of perceived control. Reeve (2009) states that those with higher levels of perceived control would be more apt to move their goals from inaction to action. References Jayasuriya, R., Caputi, P., Gregory, P, and Meloche, J. (2007). The role of achievement goal orientation in the development of self-efficacy during computer training. Retrieved February 5, 2011 from http://www.pacis-net.org/file/2007/1288.pdf Lee, F.K., Sheldon, K.M., and Turban, D.B. (2003). Personality and the goal striving process: The influence of achievement goal patterns, goal level, and mental focus on performance and enjoyment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88 (2), 256-265. Doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.88.2.256 Reeve. J. (2009). Understanding motivation and emotion (5th ed.). CA: Wiley. Assignment 3 Loretta is a professional illustrator who decided to go back to school. She chose a well known, accredited correspondence school that
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
Decision to Prosecute - Essay Example This paper declares that in Hong Kong, in safeguarding the fundamental freedoms, the decision to prosecute plays a crucial role. If a decision is made for prosecuting an individual, the resources and the powers of the government are triggered off against the individual who has been charged with an offence. When contrasted with these accessible to the ordinary citizen, the resources can be formidable. Thus, the government attorney when he is contemplating to level allegations against an accused which has been vested in him by the authority can impact an ordinary citizenÃ¢â¬â¢s life significantly, and in case of that citizen, if levelled with charge, the court may interfere, and he may be finally freed by the court. This discussion explores that the police make an analysis and make a statement of the available proof and make a recommendation to the government attorney the offences if any committed by an accused. Based on the following two standards, the government formulates its verdict to book the accused namely if alleged, if there exists a rational chance of punishment and the government attorney has to find out whether it is in the public interest to prosecute a person or not. Thus, there should be enough proof to establish all the components of specific charge of criminal nature afar from realistic suspicion. In general, the courts in Hong Kong in criminal cases will look more into the proof gathered and decide whether the charge is established or not.2. As regards to the decision not to prosecute, it is alleged that Department of Justice is arrogating the role played by the court in making a decision not to prosecute. Under Hong Kong common law setup, there exists well described and separa te task earmarked to the court and the prosecuting authority. These functions are part and parcel of the constitutional setup for making sure that there exists a division of authorities in respect of prosecutions. In respect of an alleged offence, it is the prosecuting authority which makes a decision whether a person should or should not be prosecuted as regards to an alleged offence. However, some critics argue that it is the responsibility of the prosecution to initiate the court proceedings against indicted and the court
How does the Media Influence Perception of the Female Representation - Essay Example Gone are the days when beauty lay in the eye of the beholder, and a well-proportioned body was a thing of beauty and object of admiration. But, then, we live in a consumer, if not a consumerist, society where consumption means Ã¢â¬Å"the purchase and use of goods, leisure activities and servicesÃ¢â¬ . (Jagger. 2000). Though some writers (Schama. 1987) trace consumerism to the 17th century Netherlands, others (Ewen. 1976; Susman. 1982) emphasise that it was not until the years between the First and the Second World Wars in the USA and Britain that consumer culture became fully established. The elusive Ã¢â¬Å"idealÃ¢â¬ Even today one hears it said the world over that Ã¢â¬Å"consumer is kingÃ¢â¬ , or the Ã¢â¬Å"queenÃ¢â¬ as the case may be, but the insidious brainwashing of the Ã¢â¬Å"kingÃ¢â¬ or the Ã¢â¬Å"queenÃ¢â¬ by the media at the instance of advertisers has left the Ã¢â¬Å"queenÃ¢â¬ with no volition. She dances to the tunes of the media, the tunes called by advertisers who pay the piper. Consumer society develops an increasing need to shop, meaning that individual consumers are increasingly finding the definition of themselves within commodities which can develop a feeling of high or low esteem if they do not have the new car, handbag, or pair of shoes presented as the new Ã¢â¬Å"idealÃ¢â¬ . (Marcuse: 1964). Shakespeare may have had his own reasons for saying in one of his plays that Ã¢â¬Å"good wine needs no bushÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"As You Like ItÃ¢â¬ ), but in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world advertising rules the roost and helps what amounts really to commodification of the consumer. After all, they have come to see themselves in terms of the commodities and goods that they purchase and possess. Advertisers sell the "ideal" image that most people long for but not all of whom can achieve. That "ideal", of its very nature, is unattainable, a mirage that one keeps chasing all one's life, is not allowed to be realised in the palaver of the media. Those who buy the advertised products are made to image that they are buying the resultant image. Thus, advertising claims to sell a lifestyle through the wares it hawks. Commodities are consumed not only for their "use value" but also for their "sign value" (Jagger: 2000). That means commodities are bought also for "what they signify" (p.47) because "symbolic consumption is fundamental to the process by which modern individuals create and display their identities". Nature defied! Similarly, one's appearance "does express personhood" (Judith Andre. 1994. p. 21). "It expresses one's choice, one's values, and one's taste" and thus, possibly, one's identity. Thus, what was once considered immutable and the work of Nature is being reworked. For consumer culture to flourish, not only do new images have to keep being created, but consumers need to have reasons for keeping on buying. The reason, Jagger argues, is "the desire for the sign, not the commodity itself". In other words, it is not the intrinsic worth or utility of a commodity that influences that judgment of consumers but its appearance. Above all, the tendency to keep up with the Joneses, the need to be seen having what everyone wants, forgetting that the ideal is unattainable, combine to help advertisers put consumers into a straitjacket. An obvious example is the television programme "MTV Cribs" where the rich and the famous show viewers around their homes, and, in the process, show what is most likely something they will never have. However, it is something viewers will continue to
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
The early history of Eduction - Essay Example This paved the way for determining how man could move ahead and thus acquire new ways and means through which he could be a part of the educated clan. As far as the private education domains are concerned, these have focused a great deal on how education is instilled within the society by means which are not run under the aegis of the government, rather by private entities and bodies who oversee that education is given to those who are ready to pay for it, and pay well. In entirety, education that is understood well is the education that is meant for everyone. If private education is expensive, it is because it was always like this and same will be the case in the coming times as well (Boyles, 2005). Hence gaining education is always a privilege and should always be thought as such because it helps solve the quandaries that are present within the societies and shape up the personalities of individuals on a consistent basis. Works Cited Boyles, Deron R. Schools or Markets? Commerciali sm, Privatization and School-Business Partnerships. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, NJ, 2005
Jurisprudence (law) - Essay Example being derived from a male perspective, therefore the basic question that arises is whether the assumption that law is neutral and can provide a fair hearing to all parties is justified. As a result, several feminist theories have been advanced Ã¢â¬â most notably, the equality theories, standpoint theories, ethics of care and postmodernism, all of which are examined below. These theories raise the question of whether existing universal standards and practices are indeed universal or whether in a social and legal context, long established norms conditioned from a male perspective need re-examination. While the goal of feminist jurisprudence remains the acquisition of equality for women on par with women, can this equality be achieved in the eyes of the law by gender neutral methods of analysis? As highlighted below, through an examination of the theories, it may be noted that it appears that sex is not an issue that can be so dismissed. This is the basic principle underlying the question of equal rights before the law for both men and women. Jurisprudence has remained a traditional male bastion with existing legal theories conditioned upon the premise of the Ã¢â¬Å"individualÃ¢â¬ as the philosophical basis for the legal system. Hence, earlier struggles for equal rights by women were centered upon proving to the higher authorities that women deserved equal treatment, but this was still on the basis that they were individuals. Feminist jurisprudence questions whether the Ã¢â¬Å"individualÃ¢â¬ as conceived in law is itself relevant? For example, MacLaughlin points out that the liberal perspectives of law as a fair and just system that protects is rights of all individuals is based upon treating all persons indiscriminately Ã¢â¬â but how can such a universal standard be defined in the context of differing constituencies and differing conceptions?3 While she upholds the feminist view that the rights of women as individuals must be upheld, she does not view this as being exclusive
Monday, July 22, 2019
Outline the Important Features of Utilitarianism Essay The word Utilitarianism comes from the Latin word Ã¢â¬ËutilitisÃ¢â¬â¢ meaning useful. This traditional ethical theory stemmed from the late 18th and 19th centuries. The Principle of Utility is a teological theory popularised by the late British philosopher, Jeremy Bentham. Its basic meaning suggests itÃ¢â¬â¢s the total consequences of an action which determine how morally right or wrong an action is. If the amount of happiness produced in an action overrides the unhappiness produced by an action, the action is determined right. An example of this would be an abortion. Jeremy Bentham was a man of extraordinary intellectual gifts; at the age three he began to study Latin and at the age of sixteen he took his degree at Oxford University. He introduced Act Utilitarianism; every act is evaluated on whether it does or does not produce happiness/pleasure. Ã¢â¬ËThe greatest happiness for the greatest numberÃ¢â¬â¢. This insinuates that the amount of people made happy through an act is more important than the quality of their happiness, regardless of the consequences. However, there could be problems with this theory as Phillip Pettit indicated in the quote Ã¢â¬Ëso long as they promised the best consequencesÃ¢â¬ ¦ it would forbid absolutely nothing: not rape, not torture, not even murder. Ã¢â¬â¢ Indicating that Act Utilitarianism could be an excuse to commit dreadful crimes such as murder it may create happiness for the person that committed the murder. It is also difficult to measure the quantity of pleasure or pain in an action. Yet, this theory is still a vital feature of Utilitarianism because it encourages people to think about the consequences of their actions before they perform the act. See more: essay apa format Consequently, Bentham introduced the Hedonic Calculus. The Hedonic Calculus proposes the idea that human pleasures and pains are measurable and that actions can be judged on whether they are considered right or wrong. There are seven factors that are considered when making this decision; itÃ¢â¬â¢s intensity (how pleasurable or painful the action is); the duration (how long the pleasure or pain will last); certainty (how sure of the pleasure of pain you are); propinquity/ remoteness (how near the pleasure or pain is); fecundity (the chance of being followed by similar sensations); purity (the chance of it not being followed by sensations of the opposite kind); and extent (the number of individuals affected by it). Nevertheless, John Stuart Mill stated that (happiness is) Ã¢â¬Ëmuch too complex and indefiniteÃ¢â¬â¢ (to be the measure of the moral worth of an action). Connoting, the amount of happiness/pleasure in an action is an individual process. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s subjective not objective. However the Hedonic Calculus is no doubt an essential feature of Utilitarianism as it is important to consider what makes an action morally right or wrong. Furthermore, BenthamÃ¢â¬â¢s disciple and friend, John Stuart Mill introduced Rule Utilitarianism. Rule Utilitarianism measures the consequences of the act repeated over and over again through time, to be followed as a rule whenever certain circumstances arise. It is assesses how morally right or wrong an act is. Mill stressed the importance of Ã¢â¬ËThe Greatest happiness for the greatest principleÃ¢â¬â¢ and the significance of quality over quantity. Implying the extent of the happiness is more important than how many people the happiness affects. He argued that it is the promotion of pleasures and the prevention of pain that determine our moral decisions. However what Mill failed to recognise was that it goes against human rights. So crimes as awful as murder may be considered acceptable in some cases. It could also be argued that Rule Utilitarianism ignores the consequences of the act. Rule Utilitarianism is still a very important theory as it aims to provide the most happiness/ pleasure for people as possible. Leading on, Mill introduced the idea of higher and lower pleasures. Namely those of the mind (intellectual pleasures such as learning a language) are higher pleasures. Whilst body pleasures such as eating are lower pleasures. The higher pleasures are considered more prime and important than lower pleasures. Mill declared Ã¢â¬Ëit is better to be a human dissatisfied than a pig satisfied. Ã¢â¬â¢ Implying humans are capable of experiencing much higher pleasures than animals. Mill Ã¢â¬Ëon LibertyÃ¢â¬â¢ stated Ã¢â¬Ëthe only part of conduct of anyone, for which he is amenable to society, is that which concerns othersÃ¢â¬â¢. Suggesting that individuals should care and be concerned by how others think and feel. Conversely, the problem with this theory is that it is difficult to measure the amount of pleasure someone feels. In conclusion, although Utilitarianism is very useful when evaluating the consequences of an action, this theory does not consider the moral righteousness of an action. It is also very difficult to measure the amount of pleasure produced from action. The amount of pleasure can also differ depending on the individual.
Environmental Pollution Essay Environmental pollution is not a new fact. It is one of the biggest problems the world faces today. It is a big matter which is disturbing us economically, physically and our normal life. According to the Scott Forseman, pollution is defined as the addition of any substance of form of energy to the environment at a rate faster than the environment can accommodate it by dispersion, decomposition, recycling or storage in some harmless forms. Our precious earth is daily polluted in a variety of ways such as air pollution, water, soil, chemical, smoke, noise, radioactive, thermal, waste, energy, oil and urban pollution. Pollution began to draw major public attention in the United States between the mid-1950s and early 1970s, when the congress passed the clean air act, clean water act and National Environmental Policy act. (W.A Andrews and D.K Moore).It was the industrial revolution that gave the birth to environmental pollution as we know it today. Growing evidence of local and global pollution and an increasingly informed public over time have given to environmentalism and the environmental movement, which generally seek to limit human impact on the environment. Scientists believe that all cities with populations exceeding 50,000 have some degree of air pollution. In this essay I will show that how human activities are producing pollution which is negatively affecting the whole world and environment and there are also two main solutions for this problem why it needs to be addressed. Pollution is causing by a lots of activities we do every day. Global economic production creates global pollution .Burning fossil fuels to run factories, motorized vehicles and power plants are producing huge amount of pollution everyday. Motor vehicles produce high level of Carbon monoxide (CO) and major source of hydrocarbons (HC) and nitrogen oxide (NO) which is very harmful for our environment. The other major cause is fertilizers using in the crops, it also creates pollution because it negatively affect the human health, water and the plants. One another type of pollution is oil pollution in the oceans. It is release of liquid petroleum hydrocarbon in the environment due to the human activities.
Euripedes Essay The beginnings of literature are sowed in myths. They reflect the preoccupations of the myths celebrate the primal human emotions like love, hate, sexual desires, reproduction and heroism, some others are equally horrendous dealing with some heinous crimes like murder and rape. No matter what aspect of life do they reflect it is their universality that makes them popular in different cultures and times? The myth of Inos is such an example. The legend of Inos dates back many centuries before Christ to ancient Rome and Greece. According to the legend, Inos, the daughter of Cadmus is married by Athama, King of pre historic Minyans in the ancient Boeotian city of Orchomenus. King Athama falls in love with the innocent beauty of Inos and neglects his own wife, Nephele, who disappears in anger. They have two sons, Laerchus and Melicertes . Inos also nurses Dionysus, thus incurs the wrath of Hera, the wife of Zeus. Inos is later driven mad and in her madness kills herself and her two sons. She is later worshipped by ancient Greeks as Leucothea, the White Goddess. The legend of Inos is found in different parts of world with slight variations. Euripides one of the great giants of Greek tragedy was perhaps the first who used the legend of Inos in his tragedy Medea, when he composed it in 480 B. C. His tragedy complemented to the myth of Inos so well it became more popularly known as the legend of Medea. While in love with Jason, EuripidesÃ¢â¬â¢ Medea helps him steal the golden fleece from her father, King Aeechis of Colchis. Thus, betraying her own clan. She is later abandoned by her husband, who leaves her to marry Creusa, daughter of Creon, king of Corinth. In despair Medea kills herself and her two sons. She however, goes unpunished and escapes in the dragon chariot. She takes refuge with king Aegeus of Athens. She later marries Achilles in the underworld and becomes immortal. Medea therefore, becomes the heroin of the tragedy, whereas, its her husband who suffers for betraying his wife. The legend of Medea, represents the cultural conflicts, racism and gender prejudices working on the individual lives of the characters. The employment of these phenomena in the evolution and degeneration of the characters, makes the legend universal in its appeal. It is for this reason that even in the twentyfirst century, writers incorporated the myth in the modern characters as in Wide Sargasso Sea by Jean Rhys. Set between the characters of the Carribean and England, Wide Sargasso Sea emphsise the above mentioned phenomena working on its individual characters. The novel is written in the post modern post colonial settings. Immediately after the emancipation of the Carribean blacks. It narrates the story of Anoinette later renamed as Bertha, belonging to dominica, a city of British owned Jamaica. She is married to an English man. It is eventually this relationship that derives young and innocent Annoinette to a mad woman Bertha, who later on commits suicide. The story narrates how the cultural, racial and gender prejudices makes individuals vulnerable. The novel is often seen as an adaptation of Charlotte BronteÃ¢â¬â¢s Jane Eyre written in 1886, with the same story outline, however, the real source dates back to the legend of Medea or more precisely the myth of Inos. Like medea, she marries a foreigner, and is later exploited by him for her racial inferiority and gender bias. EuripedesÃ¢â¬â¢ medea is an enchantress. Her weakness as a woman is exposed when exploited by her husband. She, however, comes out as a resolute and vindictive person. She is portrayed as strong and completely in control of her self. Till the end when she kills her kids, she is contemplative and logically derives herself to commit their murder. Whereas, RhysÃ¢â¬â¢s Bertha is doomed to her madness by the social as well as biological factors. The novel seems more of an approach that how the social factors catalyses the biological deseases. Her death, however, gives her the same triumph that Medea enjoyed over her husband. For Rochester, she remained his property even in her madness. He says towards the end, Ã¢â¬Å"even though she is mad, she is mineÃ¢â¬ . This possessiveness is given away by her through her death. Just as Medea escapes unpunished in a dragon chariot before her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes. It is interesting to note that how a twentyfirst century african woman writer incorporates the same myth used by the Greek tragedian of fifth century Before Christ. A deeper study regarding the history of the myth will unfold that how the myth of Inos undergoes different versions through out centuries and claims its authority in various cultures. After Euripedes, Publius Ovidius Naso, the Roman poet of 49 B. C. used the story in his own work which influenced Lucius Anneus Seneca the famous Hispano- Roman tragedian of 4 century B. C. at Corduba (Cordoba). Scholars believe that Seneca might have brought the original legend of Inos to Spain thorugh his own intellectual influence. However, the inscriptions on the stones at Maikop, 56 miles east of the Black Sea near Colchis, reveal the story of Jason and his Argonauts. According to the legend of Medea, Jason and his Argonauts travel to Colchis and it is there that he meets Medea. It seemed through the amazing discovery, that the whole legend or some parts of the legend might be true. The pheonicians of the 12th to 8th centuries before Christ, then present at colchis a region of the Western Georgian Socialist Soviet Republics, are supposed to transport the legend to Spain later when they themselves settled in the Iberian peninsula. It is through Spain that the legend passed on to Africa and from there to America along with slave trade. It is exceptionally popular with the Afro- Americans, who imagine her to be in real, wandering in dark forests and shrieking. Toni Morrison, another of the celebrated Afro- American writer draws a like wise figure of a phantom in her novel Ã¢â¬Å"BelovedÃ¢â¬ . In whatever version the legend of Medea appear, it projects very effectively the apparent triumph of the male sex over female, whereas, it is the weaker sex that despise the yolk of her stronger counter part and sets themselves free in the ultimate analysis. Therefore, the story becomes one of betrayal, vengeance and triumph. It is the ultimate triumph of the weak over the strong that the story remains a favourite with the writers and readers alike especially by the women writers in patriarchal societies.
Whole Foods Market Essay Summary Whole food market is the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s leading retailer of natural and organic food industry. A firm believer in the virtuous circle entwining food chain, human being and mother earth, they conduct their business true and consistent to their business mission and vision by producing the highest quality of products for its customers and high profits for its investors. Being a philanthropist and supporter of animal rights, Whole food market has established strong reputation with customers and suppliers. There are rivals in the industry and new entrants are seen penetrating the industry. At the time of the case (2005), Whole foods market is experiencing scarce resources in the organic produces and prime locations for their next business expansion. Questions 1 What are the best strategies to tackle the growing demand for organic food? 2 How can Whole Foods Market expand their business further? 3 Will Whole Foods Market survive into the 10-15 years? Analysis General Environment Global Societies are more health conscious and better educated in many parts of the world. The major market for Whole Foods Market is United States, Canada and United Kingdom. Europe is a potential market growth. Socio-cultural A growing percentage of women working have led to an increase in singlehood and ready-to-eat meal. As more people becomes health conscious, demand for organic food increases as well. Demographic Ageing baby boomer expands the senior population which in turn would increase consumption spending. In Europe, population is increasing and there are significant suppliers of organic foods with build in acceptance amongst the people there. Conclusion Europe is the next breakthrough market to capitalise with growing number of buyers and suppliers of organic products. Industry analysis Overview The natural and organic food retail industry is a fast moving consumer goods industry which requires players to either be a price leader and providing extra conveniences to customers for their pleasant experiences. However, players should never sacrifice quality for quantity as more customers are health conscious and financially capable to switch retailers without hesitation. Bargaining powers of suppliers The limited farmlands of organic foods in United States may not meet with the increasing demand in the future which may lead to price war. However, natural food supplies pose no threat. A moderate threat. Bargaining powers of buyers Consumers have a strong buying power as they are the main buyers in this industry. With increasing ageing baby boomers, singlehood and health conscious adults, demands for better quality of natural and organic foods are likely to increase. A high threat. Rivalry amongst existing competitors Rivalry in the industry is intense as firms continuously try to promote their presence and products. A high threat. Threat of substitute product The only substitute for natural food is organic produce. There is also an increasing demand for ready-to-eat meals over prepared meals. A low threat. Is this an attractive industry? With the increasing population of ageing baby boomers, singlehood and health conscious adults, a growing demand for organic foods and ready-to-eat meals will increase over the years. While the competition is intense amongst firms coupled with high bargaining powers of buyers, the industry is deeming as attractive. Competitor analysis Ã¢â¬ ¢ Trader JoeÃ¢â¬â¢s adopts price leadership strategy without sacrificing its product quality. It has 215 stores located primarily in the west and east coast of the United States. They offer upscale grocery fare and employs low cost structures. The second biggest retailer in the industry. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Wild Oats Market has 100 stores located in 24 states and Canada. Relying on employees to learn the industry, Wild Oats is committed to strengthen and streamline its operation to expand its business. The third biggest retailer. Internal analysis Tangible Resources Ã¢â¬ ¢ Natural and organic products Ã¢â¬ ¢ Stringent food quality control Ã¢â¬ ¢ Good financial health Ã¢â¬ ¢ Good access to resources from different geographical regions. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Employ the Ã¢â¬Å"code of conductÃ¢â¬ Intangible Resources Ã¢â¬ ¢ Voted Ã¢â¬Å"100 Best companies to work in AmericaÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Promoted in several health magazine Ã¢â¬ ¢ Recognition for charity contributions and awareness to animal rights Ã¢â¬ ¢ Good relationship with its supplier Ã¢â¬ ¢ Good organisation routines Ã¢â¬ ¢ Good reputation with its customers for its highest quality product Ã¢â¬ ¢ Recognised private labelled product Capabilities Production of high quality natural and organic productV, I Careful research setup and productsV, I, N The ability to sell consumer on the entire experiences fromR, V, I, N product to service. The ability to maintain excellent relationship with their supplierR, V, I, N Excellent team-based environmentV, I, N Strictest quality standardsV, N The ability to maintain positive relationship withR, V, I, N investors and employees Excellent staff trainingV Core competencies Whole Foods Market has three core competencies; the ability to go out of its way to appeal to their customers by taking every advantage of the customer expectation exceeding their reputations. Secondly, the mutual but beneficial relationship between Whole Foods and its suppliers that allows for deep discounts and favourable terms. Lastly, to have a strong and committed mission and vision that allows Whole Foods to be perceived by public as a trustworthy firm that values relationships over materials. This in turn has lead to an increase in investors and voted as some of the best companies to work in. The above mentioned are a sacred treasures to Whole Foods Market that separates them from their rivals. Careful research setup and products and excellent team-based environment are probably the secondary competencies they possess. However, these qualities are not rare as most other companies would employ this strategies to gain a competitive advantage. SWOT analysis |S | | | | | |Links with investor and public community |Inability to find location with 40% college | |Links with supplier | | | |degree holder for expansion | | | |Excellent team-based environment | | | | | | | | | | | |well as its acceptance | | |Organic produce may not meet with growing | | | | | |demand | | | | | | | | | | |Limited prime location | | | | Answer 1 What are the best strategies to tackle the growing demand for organic food? As the ageing baby boomer expands the senior population, more adults are becoming health conscious. According to National Nutritional Food Association, demands for organic foods are seen increasing as consumers perceived it to be healthier. It is known that Europe may provide an enormous potential growth because of the large population and holds more organic foods market in terms of supplies and buyers. Since Whole Foods Market is committed to sustainable agriculture without sacrificing quality, it is highly recommended that they established a relationship with the European suppliers to meet the organic demands in United States, Canada and United Kingdom. Whole Foods Market can then draw investors in expanding its business in Europe to further their income. 2 How can Whole Foods Market expand their business further? As the number one retailer in the natural and organic food industry, Whole Foods Market should expand its business to Europe where potential economic growth awaits. Building a positive relationship with the suppliers in Europe can help to meet with the organic demands in United States, Canada and United Kingdom. However, they should never neglect the European consumers because of its large population and acceptance of organic produce. Having built a reputation as a retailer that provides high quality foods, a philanthropist, anti-animal cruelty and firm that provides the best working environment, Whole Foods Market can build a strong and positive relationship with Europe and help to enhance the economic growth. Also by creating job opportunities, Whole Foods Market can help with the level of employment therefore strengthening ties with the Europe. This will be important to gain supports and acceptances from European to help with their sales. 3 Will Whole Foods Market survive into the 10-15 years? Whole Foods Market has an excellent long history for its marvellous reputation and contributions to societies. Despite being a volatile industry, the stock prices have mostly been an upward trend with currently at US$136 per shares. This will continue in the next 10-15 years as FMCG are always in demand. Having a nation that is facing ageing baby boomers, increasing singlehood and working women, Whole Foods Market can expect rapid demands for organic and ready-to-eat meals. Unless they manage to tap into the European suppliers for organic food, customers might switch to other possible retailers if they failed to meet with the demands which are the worst case scenario. As more people are aware of the potential health risks for poor dieting, more consumers will not mind to spend an extra bucks. However, they should not neglect the lower income families by providing them alternatives of budget healthier eating and products. In the next 10-15 years, the probability of new entrants moving into organic food industry might increase once entrepreneurs realises the eating trend of consumers. Price war may take place.
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Impact of VAT (Value added Tax) Increase on Tourism industry To evaluate the impact of VAT (Value added Tax) increase on Tourism industry of U.K in 2011. 2) Provisional Working Title: The tourism generates a major contribution to UK economy. It generated about Ã £85 billion offering 3.5 percent to national GDP. About two million jobs are maintained by the tourism industry in which 1.4 million are directly employed in the sector with five percent of UK employment. The tourism industry of UK has considerably reduced in the past ten years drastically. The closing stages of the provisional VAT reduction that took place in January 2010 are expected to negatively influence the UK tourism industry completely. Even though the return of the VAT rate to 17.5% will not have a specific unfavorable effect on lodging providers and tourist attractions, it is bounce to minimize the competitiveness of U.K based on the recent measures collected in Europe. For example, consider France lowered the VAT rate for restaurants from 19.6% to 5.5% and hence Germany proclaimed that it will lessen its VAT rate on lodging from 19% to 7% in January. Most of the reports suggested that the tax rate is more when compared to other destinations. Hence, it shows that the visitors to U.K face higher prices that generate the country to be less competitive. Moreover, the lower rate would support savings in the sector that could knock over the turn down in the Balance of Payments and add up to Ã £1.6 bn in the first year in the consecutive years. On an average of the assessment of VAT rates in some crest rival tourist destinations such as France, Spain, Italy, the US and Australia revealed that the visitors of U.K will compensate about 10% more on housing and restaurants and 3.5 % extra on appeals and remaining items than they would in any of those substitute countries. A vat rate of 17.5% places the UK tourism sector at an apparent upgrading in the forceful comprehensive tourism market. In this connection, this research aims at evaluating the impact of VAT increase in the tourism industry of U.K in the year 2011. 3) Aims and objectives of the research: The important aim of this research is to evaluate the impact of VAT (Value added Tax) increase on Tourism industry of U.K in the year 2011. Objectives: To understand about the effectiveness of tourism taxation in U.K To analyze the trends and issues of U.K tourism To understand the economic effects of changing VAT rates on the U.K tourism industry To conduct a primary research evaluating the impact of VAT (Value added Tax) increase on Tourism industry in 2011. To analyze the results of the primary research 4) What is already known about this topic? (Preliminary literature review) Literature review: The following literature provides the information collected from secondary sources of information say ( articles, journals, various websites, white papers, annual reports, magazines, documents, texts , statistics and so on ) Several authors views and opinions are considered to draw a conclusion on the existing literature. The economic evaluation of Tourism: The authors Dwler and Forsyth (1993) explains that Tourism is viewed as an increasing economic action and it is desirable. The positive influence of the economic proceeding is also required in it. Most of the interested parties inquire to determine the effect of tourism on economic activity. Hence, these interested parties might be policy makers charged with the generation of the policy towards the segment. They may involve promoters of events or policy changes and government treasuries observing spending on tourism ventures or may be local authorities. Similarly, the authors Fletcher (1994), Frechtling (1999), Crompton Lee and Shuster (2001), Tyrell and Johnson (2001) illustrates that a predominant method is employed for analyzing the economic impact of the tourism depending on the input and output analysis. Consequently, the authors Wanhill, west, Gamage (2001) says that an input Ã¢â¬âoutput model is used to evaluate the change in the question. ii) Effectiveness of Tourism Taxation in U.K: The authors Ramesh Durbarry and Thea Sinclair illustrates that tourism in United Kingdom is considered as a chief source of revenue, service and foreign exchange receipts. Its effects also fall over to remaining divisions of the economy. But, the tourism businesses in U.K underwent plenty of issues in the present days. This imitated major decline in the shares of the world tourism market and decline in the intensity of the valid revenue for every visit for most of the UKs prominent tourism markets. As a result, the level of the price competitiveness on tourism receipts provides some concerns specially. Tourism taxation is a significant resource of measuring price competiveness in the economy. However, tourism makes an imperative payment to the economy. Let us check those points one by one: Tourism and day visitors offered about 5 percent of GDP (gross Domestic product) over Ã £ total of 61 billion in the year 1999. Number of the people working in the tourism businesses of 125,000 are about 1.78 billion It is also considered as the largest invisible export of UK The uppermost traveler appearances are from USA, France and Germany According to Deloitte report, it is stated that the contribution of tourism to UK economy offers five per cent of the national GDP and seven percent of employment. This is the situation before ten years ago. Hence it can be concluded that the tourism industry of UK economy considerably reduced in the past ten years. Meanwhile, there are many issues that influence the countrys international competitiveness and it is also appropriate to consider the time of the raise in the rate of VAT on tourism services in the UK. Vat has been augmented from eight to 15 percent in the year 1980 to 1981 and to 17.5 percent in the year 1991. The following fig shows the U.Ks Tourism balance from 1982-2006. iii) Trends and issues of U.K tourism: The UK tourism industry suffered two important issues in the year 2010 for sustaining employment and making sustainable economic development. Hence, it is needed that the government important that the new government recognize and boost the industries that are capable to tackle these problems. The attributes such as labor intensive, low barriers of entry and high demand are suited for assisting the current economic and employment problems. According to UK labour force survey, 2008, it is revealed that UK tourism offers youth employment. Based on UK Tourism Survey, 2008, it is revealed that it provides regional employment. In fact, it offers a high return on investment and rapid return on investment. The UK tourism underwent number of issues. Even though, the sector experienced huge growth rate in getting visitors from overseas, it accompanied considerable issues given below: Even though, tourist visitors from aboard augmented about the past two decades, declines happened in the late 1990s The u.ks share of international tourism reduced to about 4.5% during the mid 1990s and remained fairly steady thereafter Reduced the development of the real tourism receipts from overseas Real tourism receipts per capita per tourist also reduced for most important of the chief UK countries Rise of the tourism price index for UK than consumer price index Hence, it can be concluded that the tourism industry in United Kingdom has underwent number of problems, especially in the decline of the share of the world tourism receipts , decline in the price competitiveness and decline in the value of the receipts per each visit of the tourist from most important regions of interest. Hence, this context is against the conversation of the tourism taxation, the price sensitivity and the world wide competiveness of the UK tourism industry that should be measured. iv) Evaluating the economic effects of changing VAT rates on the U.K tourism industry: For most of the countries, VAT is treated as an important tax in the tourism industry. The VAT rates in the European economy change across many countries both in hospitality and application of the standard rates. The member countries can install very less rates and after application of such type of rates when they select tourist facilities. Hence, the vat rates are applicable to tourism industry in industries such as accommodation, restaurants, bars and cafÃ © service and so on. In Europe, merely three states Denmark, Germany and UK yet relate their standard VAT rate to the tourism industry. There appears that to widespread acceptance that reducing taxes on tourism services is advantageous to the countries that have installed reduced rates to the tourism related sectors. Table to show the VAT rates in the hospitality and the Catering sector in European countries, 1998 Table to show VAT rate in hotels of Europe: Hence, from the above tables, it can be concluded that a reduction in the rate of VAT in the hospitality and the catering sector may not imply less revenue tom the government of UK. The tax had doubled during the years 1984 to 1993 due to enormous increase in numerous businesses in this segment and in their extent of business. The government earned more revenue despite of lowering the rate. Hence, the simulation results from BTA (1998) also signify that the output of VAT in UK could augment in the context of a decrease in the existing rate of VAT in the hospitality and the catering sector. Hence, it stated that these outcomes reveal that the correlation among the decrease in the rate of VAT and the increase in the tax may not imply a casual relationship. Furthermore, an econometric model is also considered to understand the VAT effectiveness in the tourism industry of UK, however, this research summarized that an improvement in the price competiveness of the tourism sector in UK could be accomplished with the help of the depreciation of the exchange rate for sterling as well as reducing the rate of VAT by lessening their prices as long as the tourism businesses react to the tax reduction by lessening the prices. Still research is required in this. Trip advisor poll (2010) revealed that the tax will increase from 17.5 % to 20% on 4th January 2011. It will influence both the costs of shopping and accommodation, tourist attractions and even car hire charges. This makes UK very expensive to nearly a quarter (24%) of European respondents. From the research, it is revealed that a quarter believe that the VAT augment will generate British holidays unaffordable. Mean while, further quarters (26%) are yet undecided whether the tax hikes will deter them from holidaying in UK next year 2011. 24% of the Britons claim that VAT increase could make domestic holidays very costlier in the year 2011. Emma O Boyle also stated that UK is considered as one of the Europes most famous holiday destinations and regarded as a world class shopping hub. Due to the VAT increase, the outstanding travel deals in 2011 of British tourism industry should work hard to be viewed as striking and cutthroat celebration alternative. 5) Why is this work important? (What contribution to knowledge / originality is involved?) This research project provides number of benefits to understand about the effectiveness of the tourism taxation in U.K. In depth evaluation of the thesis makes an individual to know about the economic effects of changing VAT rates on the U.K tourism industry. As a result, this project will be helpful to enhance knowledge in taxation, acquiring new skills, understanding ability, decision making skills and time management skills. In this manner, this project leaves a lot of scope for future researches also. 6) How will this work be conducted? (Methodology sources of data) Research methodology: Research Methodology is used to realize the concept of the project. By the research method one can know the products of analysis and also the total process of the project. Various research methods are explained by the researcher in the research methodology to find the aims and objectives of the research. For completing the project effectively a variety of research methods are discussed. For collecting the data that helps in completing the project successfully Primary research and secondary research methods are used. The data is analyzed and then results are made after analyzing the collected data. Some of the research methods are commonly used for any research process. A research work is not merely a work plan but it provides the data that has to be completed. Hence, it can be said that work plan will explain the flow from the projects research design. Moreover, the function of the research design is to facilitate that the evidence acquired permits the user to reply the initial quest ion as definitely as likely. Research design handles with a logical problem but not a logical problem. (Yin, 1989: 29) The various research processes are Experiment methods Survey methods Observation methods Case study method Literature review The research methods used for the successful completion of this project are Qualitative research and quantitative research method. Qualitative Research Method: [Marshall PA. 2003]Qualitative research method is a type of logical research. The approach of gathering inÃ¢â¬âdepth information during questioning the participants is done in the Qualitative Research. Qualitative research methods are more flexible when compared to quantitative research methods. The indefinable factors can be recognized by the qualitative research methods. Participant research, in-depth interviews and focus groups are the three types of qualitative research methods. The participant observation is used for collecting the data based on the behaviors. To obtain the group data, focus groups are used. For collecting individual data in depth interviews are used. Qualitative research contains very smaller sample size. In the qualitative research mainly the interviews and group discussions are carried out. In this type of research the customer response forms, information or media clips are provided. This was generally conducted to observe and query the activities of the different groups in the present world. The scientific research is considered as the qualitative method. In the present event study, this research provides the higher inspection and survey related areas. This qualitative research offers the in depth information on the research and various issues present in the research, several generating ideas, and finally the conclusions are drawn from the possible results of the study. Qualitative research is a special kind of scientific research. It contains the investigation that: Seeks answers to a question Methodically, it employs a predefined group of procedures to reply the question It gathers evidence It also produces proof that were not determined in advance It also produces the findings that are suitable beyond the immediate boundaries of the research study. A qualitative interview technique is dissimilar from daily conversation in the following ways. First it is a line of investigation tool and a good interviewer must prepare questions in advance, and later analyze and report results. (Rubin Rubin, 1995, p.2) (Potter,W. 1996) (William Badke, 2008), (Fetterman, D. 1988) Merits of Qualitative research: It helps in building new theories It uses subjective information Explore new areas of research The questions which are complex to evaluate in the quantitative methods can be examined by the qualitative research method Demerits of qualitative research: 1) It is expensive 2) Time consuming process 3) The information gathered is limited to questionnaires and interviews. Primary research: As a part of the primary data, interviews are conducted with the government officials, higher officials of tourism department and finance department in order to predict conclusion on the impact on the VAT increase in tourism industry of U.K in 2011. Secondary research: As a part of the secondary research, number of articles, journals, various websites, white papers, survey reports, news papers, magazines, texts, documents and so on is referred in order to draw a conclusion on the economic effects of changing VAT rates on the U.K tourism industry and various trends and issues in it. Both primary (interview sessions) and secondary research (literature review) are sources of information collection. Sampling will be decided based on their availability. 7) What are the anticipated outcomes? A literature survey comparing various authors views and opinions of plenty of articles, journals, magazines, different websites, texts, and documents in order to draw a conclusion from it Analysis results of the primary research Probable recommendations for the research by considering the results acquired from the primary and secondary sources
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