Saturday, August 31, 2019
International trade has a great potential to uplift the lives of people in developing countries as well as increasing profits for companies in the developed world. It can also have environmental consequences if the transactions are not consciously provisioned. This potential can flourish when countries come to a common agreement on trade laws that protect against the damages that using these products can bring upon the local community. Pesticide use for agriculture and disease control has been a controversial topic for decades given its toll on people and the environment.Its monitoring has been increasingly successful in industrial countries but almost non-existent in developing countries causing detriment to the health of thousands of farm workers around the world as they repeatedly come in contact with and inhale harmful chemicals. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), different pesticides, when consumed, have varying and inter-related effe cts as they pass through the food chain. Therefore, the larger concentrations of pesticides are found on larger predators, including men.Among the damages to living organisms, including aquatic species, are cancers, tumors and lesions, reproductive inhibition or failure, suppression of immune system, disruption of endocrine system, cellular and DNA damage, physical deformities such as hooked beaks on birds, poor fish health marked by low red to white blood cell ratio, and death. In some cases, chronic effects are passed from generation to generation and only become apparent in time 1. The persistent and rapidly spreading properties of toxic chemicals present in pesticides do not concern only the developing world.Some, including PCBs can originate in India and ride the wind to the Arctic in just 5 days 2. The FAOÃ¢â¬â¢s research discovered that Ã¢â¬Å"in the Great Lakes of North America bioaccumulation (or movement of a chemical from the surrounding medium into an organism) and mag nification of chlorinated compounds in what is, on global standards, a relatively clean aquatic system, caused the disappearance of top predators such as eagle and mink and deformities in several species of aquatic birdsÃ¢â¬ 3.In recognition of the disadvantages many harmful pesticides such as DDT have been banned in the United States, yet their manufacture for exportation is still permitted. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates the imports and exports of these products in an effort to prevent health and contamination issues as well as to supervise fair competition. The law requires that Ã¢â¬Å"exporters of unregistered (or unapproved) pesticides first obtain a statement signed by the foreign purchaser indicating the purchaser's awareness of that product in the U. SÃ¢â¬ 4.Despite this awareness, some countries continue to use them because it is an inexpensive way to keep their crops blemish-free and fight diseases like malaria, for example. In tropical and subtr opical regions, Ã¢â¬Å"in addition to pesticides used in the normal course of irrigated agriculture, control of vector-borne diseases may require additional application of insecticides such as DDT which have serious and widespread ecological consequencesÃ¢â¬ 5. Such large demand in countries with endangered eco-systems like Brazil has lured many companies in industrial countries to keep producing and exporting.More than 312 million kg were exported from the US in 1996, a 40% increase since 1992. Some even move their production to third world countries where environmental regulations are far less restrictive. In many past cases pesticide packages were exported without the proper disclosure of all chemicals, making it difficult to distinguish their consequences. This was especially unsafe for farmers in developing countries where protecting equipment is scarce 6. Improvement is underway, but sometimes it also means taking a few steps backwards. Since the Rotterdam Convention on the Prior Informed Consent (PIC), adopted in February 2004, the U.S. is also making an effort in sharing the responsible use of 39 hazardous chemicals listed by the Convention 7. Some developing countries followed on the initiative to ban or restrict hazardous pesticides for health and environmental reasons, yet this positive step towards resolving the situation has led to water contamination concerns. These countries lack the monetary resources to properly store or dispose of about 100,000 tons they no longer use, sometimes because they have deteriorated in storage. Drums are kept exposed to sun and rain running the risk of bursting open or leaking.Some are kept near markets contaminating the soil, groundwater, drinking water, and irrigation. In efforts to decrease their stocks some countries have opted to donate them in foreign aid programs. Far from resolving the problem, this only moves it elsewhere. Solutions seem farfetched for the developing world since FAO estimates it would co st $80-100 million in Africa alone to dispose of them appropriately 8. EPAÃ¢â¬â¢s law to allow exporting banned pesticides is greatly flawed because these harmful chemicals return on imported food, wind currents and rain or snow.Despite efforts to regulate the tolerable chemical residue on imported foods, as long as toxic chemicals are still manufactured the global environment and public health will continue to deteriorate. Unfortunately, environmental legislation usually takes years to take effect and is mostly driven by business interests. A sensible solution would be to radically eliminate the use of these chemicals globally and replace them with natural ingredients and green technology.
Osteogenisis imperfecta (OI) is Ã¢â¬Å"a rare genetic disorder of collagen synthesis associated with broad spectrum of musculoskeletal problems, most notably bowing and fractures of the extremities, muscle weakness, ligamentous laxity, and spinal deformities. Ã¢â¬ (Binder, 386). Other collagen-containing extraskeletal tissues, such as the sclerae, the teeth, and the heart valves are also affected to a variable degree. OI has a Ã¢â¬Å"common feature of bony fragility associated with defective formation of collagen by osteoblasts and fibroblasts. (Smith, 1983, 13) This disease, involving defective development of the connective tissues, is usually the result f the autosomal dominant gene, but can also be the result of the autosomal recessive gene. Spontaneous mutations are common and the clinical presentation of the disease remains OI is most commonly referred to as Ã¢â¬Å"brittle bonesÃ¢â¬ , but other names include: fragilitas ossium, hypolasia of the mesenchyme, and osteopsathyrosis. Osteogenisis imperfecta is still not completely understood, and while there have been advances in diagnosing the disease, Osteogenisis imperfecta is the result of mutations In the mild dominantly inherited form of OI (type I), Ã¢â¬ a non-functional allele for the alpha 1 (I) chain halves ollagen synthesis,Ã¢â¬ (Smith, 1995, 169) and is largely responsible for the inheritance. Single base mutations in the codon for glycine causes lethal (type II) OI by wrecking the formation of the collagen triple helix. Types III and IV are the Ã¢â¬Å"less dram- atic outcomes of similar glycine mutations in either the alpha 1 (I) or the alpha 2(I) The clinical signs can be caused from defective osteoblastic activity and defective mesenchymal collagen (embryonic connective tissue) and its derivatives, such as sclera, bones, and ligaments. The reticulum fails to differentiate into mature collagen or the collagen develops bnormally. This causes immature and coarse bone formation The signs and symptoms of OI vary greatly depending on the type. The most commonly used classification is the Type I is the mildest form of OI and is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. The sclerae(middle coat of eyeball) is distinctly blue. Type I is broken down into IA and IB Ã¢â¬â the difference being whether dentinogenesis is present. IA has a life expectancy nearly the same as the general public. The physical activity is limited, and may appear to have no disability at all. The bones have a mottled or wormian appearance, forming small islands. Type II is lethal in utero or shortly there afterbirth. The survivors live from just a few hours to several months. The kayotypes of parents are usually normal. This type is broken down into three subgroups: IIA is characterized by a broad, crumpled femora and continuos rib beading, IIB by minimal to no rib fractures, and IIC by a thin femora and ribs with extensive fracturing. While in the uterus, there is poor fetal movement, low fetal weight, poor ossification of the fetal skeleton, hypoplastic lungs, the long bones of the upper and lower limbs are shortened or deformed, and the head is soft. Intrauterine fractures ccur, and parinatal death is usually from intracranial hemorrhage due to vessel fragility or respiratory distress from pulmonary hypoplasia. The bones and other tissues are extremely fragile, and massive injuries occur in utero or delivery. The ribs appear beaded or broken and the long Type III and IV are intermediate in severity between types I and II. Type III differs from I in its greater severity, and from IV in that it increases in severity with age. It can be inherited as either a autosomal recessive or dominant trait. The sclerae is only slightly bluish in infancy and white in adulthood, although the average life xpectancy is 25 years. Type IV is always dominant. With types III and IV multiple fractures from minor physical stress occurs leading to progressive and severe deformities. Kyphoscoliosis may cause respiratory impairment and predisposition to pulmonary infections. Ã¢â¬Å"Popcorn-likeÃ¢â¬ deposits of mineral appear on the ends of long bones. The symptoms of OI tarde (types I, III and IV) can appear when the child begins to walk, and lessens with age. The tendency to fracture decreases and often disappears after puberty. Later in life, particularly during pregnancy and after menopause, more fractures occur. The bones are usually slender with short, thin cortices and trabeculae (fibers of framework), but can also be unusually thin. (Smith, 1983, 136) Narrow diaphysis of the long bones contributes to the fractures and bowing deformities. Scoliosis is common. The haversian cells are poorly developed. The bones lack minerals needed to form bone matrix. Epiphyseal fractures (end of the bone) results in deformities and stunted growth (dwarfism). Osteopenia, the decrease in bone mass, is symptomatic. Other signs of OI include hyperextensibility of the joints Ã¢â¬â double-jointednessÃ¢â¬â and abnormally thin, translucent skin. Discolored (blue-gray or yellow-brown) and malformed teeth which break easily and are cavity prone are found in patients Patients with OI have a triangular-shaped head and face, a bilaterally bulging skull, and prominent eyes with a wide distance between the temporal region. Hearing loss by the age of 30-40 is the result of the pressure on the auditory nerve because of the deformity of its canal in the skull, and the development of otosclerosis. Recurrent epistaxis (nosebleeds), bruising and edema (especially at the sight of fractures), difficulty tolerating high temperatures and mild hyperpyrexia are other symptoms. Thoracic deformities may impair chest expansion and the ability to effectively breath deeply and cough. (Loeb, 755) Patients are also more susceptible to infection. In assessing a patient data is needed about the genetic history and birth of the child, as well as a complete development assessment from birth. Vital signs are taken, and periods of increased heart and respiratory rate and elevated body temperature are note- worthy. Skin should be examined for color, elasticity, translucency, and signs of edema and bruising. A description of position and appearance of a childÃ¢â¬ s trunk and extremities and facial characteristics should be noted. The height of the child in terms of expected growth, signs of scoliosis or laxity of ligaments, and range of motion of the joints are all important. Sight and hearing should be tested since there are sensory problems associated with OI. The appearance of the sclerae and tympanic membranes and defects of primary teeth and gums are important. (Jackson, X-rays usually reveal a decrease in bone density. There is no consensus, however, as to whether the diagnosis can be made by microscopy of bone specimens. Ã¢â¬ (Isselbacher, 2112) DNA sequencing and incubating skin fiboblasts are two ways help diagnose OI. Prenatal ultrasonography is used to detect severely affected fetuses at about 16 weeks of pregnancy. Diagnosis of the lethal type II by ultrasound during the second trimester of pregnancy is by the identification of fractures of the long bones. Compression of the fetal head is seen by ultrasound probe, and low echogeneity of the cranium can be signs of skeletal dysplasia (faulty development of the tissues). Diagnosis is confirmed by postmortem examination including radiography and biochemical studies of cultivated fibroblasts from the fetus. (Berge, 321) Diagnosis by analyzing DNA sequencing can be carried out in chronic villa There is no known treatment of OI at this time. Treatment therefore is predominantly supportive and educational. Because of multiple fractures and bruising, it is important to diagnose this disease in order to prevent Treatment of fractures is often challenging because of abnormal bone structure and laxity of the ligaments. Splinting devices are used to stabilize the bones and to protect against additional fractures. Treatment aims to prevent deformities through use of traction and/or immobilization in order to aid in normal development and rehabilitation. Limb deformities and repeated fractures can e corrected by intramedullary rods Ã¢â¬â telescoping rods that elongate with growth. After surgical placement of the rods, extensive post- operative care is required because greater amounts of blood and fluid are lost. (Loeb, 755) It should be noted that the healing of fractures appear to be normal. (Isselbacher, 2112) Braces, immobilizing devices and Physical therapy is important in the treatment of OI. Bone fracture density in unfractured bone is decreased when compared with age-matched controls due to limited exercise, so it is essential to stay as active as possible. Physical therapy is also used for strengthening muscle and reventing disuse fractures with exercises with light Regular dental visits are necessary to monitor the ogists for vision and audiologits for hearing is also essential. Radiologists need to examine the structure and density of the bones, and an orthopedist is needed to set fractures and take care of other bone related problems. Counseling and emotional support is needed for both the patient and the family. It is important not to limit a child because of his/her disabilities, and to realize that many victims of this disease live successful lives. Debrah Morris, a successful business woman, and active fighter for isability rights and helping other patients of OI, says, Ã¢â¬Å"If I had the choice to be anyone in the world, I would be exactly who I am. The people I have met, the challenges I have faced, the opportunities that I have been presented Ã¢â¬â all are directly related to dealing with being a little person with brittle bones. (Kasper, 53) Many of the symptoms of OI can be confused with those of a battered child. X-rays are used to show evidence of old fractures and bone deformities to distinguish the difference. The Osteogenesis Imperfecta Foundation (OIF) has is a national support group that offers assistance to families in this osition and to increase public awareness. The OIF has a medical advisory council, chapters, support groups, regional meetings, biennial national conferences, and parent contacts to help families feeling alone and helpless. They also publish a newsletter, provide literature and videos about OI, and sponsors a fund to support research. Magnesium oxide can be administered to decrease the fracture rate, as well as hyperpyrexia and constipation associated with this condition. (Anderson, 1127) A high-protein, high-carbohydrate, high-vitamin diet is needed to promote healing. A growth hormone has also been dministered during childhood, and is shown to substantially increase growth. Treatment with bisphosphorates and related agents has been discussed to decrease bone loss, but no controlled studies have been done. Isselbacher, 2113) Since there is no cure for oseogenesis imperfecta, appropriate and properly timed rehabilitation intervention is of the utmost importance to ensure that the child is able to function to the best of his/her ability in society. A ten year study that was submitted in 1992 proves this. 25 of 115 children with severe OI were observed since birth or infancy at the National Institutes of Health, MD and the Skeletal Dysplasia Clinic at the ChildrenÃ¢â¬ s National Medical Center in D. C. One was Type I, two Type II, nine Type III, and thirteen Type IV. They were classified by physical characteristics and functional Group A consisted of those who were severely dwarfed with large heads and marked bowing , contractures, and weakness of extremities. The highest functional skill expected was independent sitting. Group B was growth deficient, but with a normal sized head. Femoral bowing, scoliosis, and contractures of the hip flexors were characteristics. they were expected to stand and/or ambulate with braces. Group C were less growth deficient, and had good strength, but poor endurance. They had marked joint laxity and poorly aligned lower extremity joints, but Group A patients were the most severely involved. Most were basically sitters. The majority were totally dependent in their self care. Group B had the potential to become at least short-distance ambulators. These patients had acquired the ability to move to sitting, but had transitional moving problems, such as sitting to standing. ially independent in their self care. Group C had antigravity strength and 50% had good strength in their extremities. All were physically active and age-appropriately independent, but none were good long-distance walkers. Binder, 387-388) Progressive rehabilitation of these groups all included posture exercises and active range of motion and strengthing exercises. Group B had additional ROM and posture exercises, as well as Developmental exercises. Group C added coordination activities. Conclusion, Ã¢â¬Å"Management of patients with OI should address the childÃ¢â¬ s functional needs. Even though the degree of disability may be severe, management should not be limited to orthopedic procedures and bracing. Treatment lanning should be considered, but not totally based on genetic, anatomical, and biochemical abnormalities. Our ence suggests that clinical grouping based in part on functional potential can be useful in the appropriate management of children with OI. Ã¢â¬Å"(Binder, 390) Independence was stressed in this study, and even patients with limited sitting ability, upper extremity function can be improved to at least minimal independence in self-help skills. Potential ambulators should be helped because, although their ability might not progress past indoor ambulation, walking will make them more independent and may result in ncreased bone mineralization. Poor joint alignment, poor balance, and low endurance can all be improved with persistent, individualized physical and occupational therapy. For best results, therapy should be started as soon after birth as possible. Mainstreaming school aged children is also important. All of this together leads to Ã¢â¬Å"age-appropriate social development and markedly improved independence and quality of life in the majority of Osteogenesis imperfecta is the most common genetic disorder of the bone. It occurs in about 1 in 20,000 live births, and is equally prevalent in all races and both sexes. The Type I OI has a population frequency of about 1 in 30,000. Type II has a birth incidence of about 1 in 60,000. Types III and IV are less common and may be as high as 1 in 20,000. (Isselbacher, 2111) The occurrence of OI in families with no history or blue sclerae is about 1 in 3,000,000 births. (Smith, 1995, 171) The recurrence risks in families is estimated to be 6 to 10%, but is only estimated because most couples choose not to have any more children. 15 to 20% of patients with OI do not carry the gene for abnormal collagen, making many wonder if there is yet another genetic problem undiagnosed at this time.
Friday, August 30, 2019
Abstract The Following Essay defines and integrates the role race plays on the African American culture in their family values and politics in comparison to the Anglo American Culture. The United States has become increasingly diverse in the last century. While African American families share many features with other U. S. families, the African American family has some distinctive features relating to the timing and approaches to marriage and family formation, gender roles, parenting styles, and strategies for coping with adversity. African cultures, slavery, slave rebellions, and the civil rights movements(circa 1800s-160s)have shaped African American religious, familial, political and economic behaviors. The imprint of Africa is evident in myriad ways, in politics, economics, language, music, hairstyles, fashion, dance, religion and worldview, and food preparation methods. In the United States, the very legislation that was designed to strip slaves of culture and deny them education served in many ways to strengthen it. In turn, African American culture has had a pervasive, transformative impact on myriad elements of mainstream American culture, among them language, music, dance, religion, cuisine, and agriculture. This process of mutual creative exchange is called creolization. Over time, the culture of African slaves and their descendants has been ubiquitous in its impact on not only the dominant American culture, but on world culture as well. The Role of Race According to the U. S. Census Bureau 13. 6 percent, 42 million, of the total U. S population was made of people who identified themselves as black. This is a 15. 4% increase from 2000 to 2010 (Rastogi, Johnson, Hoeffel & Drewery, 2011). Is it becoming increasingly difficult to describe the American black population, though the majority of American blacks trace their heritage to slavery, an increasing minority are voluntary immigrants or their descendants. More Africans have entered the United States since 1990 as voluntary immigrants than entered as slaves before slave trafficking was outlawed in the early nineteenth century ( Marger 2012 p. 178). Never before and in no other country have as many varied ethnic groups congregated and combined as they have in the United States. With such reputation, here is exactly where the famous term Ã¢â¬Å"melting potÃ¢â¬ arises. This conception has traditionally been perceived as the best expression to describe the multi-ethnicity of America. Its basic idea presents the whole nation as one large pot. Anyone who enters the United States is automatically thrown into this Ã¢â¬Å"potÃ¢â¬ where, for the following years, a process of assimilation into the American belief systems is taken place. Assimilation is all the cultural aspects that one brings into are blended together, or melted, to form a new culture. The outcome of this massive procedure is the Ã¢â¬Å"meltedÃ¢â¬ version of a culture, which is described as characteristically Ã¢â¬Å"American. Ã¢â¬ It is notable that in this assimilation, the identities of each original culture are extinguished to bring out a complete new mixture Slavery Part of the control mechanism of slavery was to strip African Americans of identity, language, and culture of their homeland. This was done by undermining and replacing family structures with temporary ones built around identity as slaves. This undermining was not however entirely successful as many slaves organized themselves into family structures very similar to nuclear families. Family Formation Within African American families, the formation of a household often begins not with marriage, but with birth of a child. 56% of African American children are born into families where the mother is not married to the biological father. Single women head 54% of African American households. African American women are taught to be strong and independent, to prepare for careers rather than rely on marriage for economic security. Marriage According to the 2010 census only 40% of black households were married couples. While 40% of African American men and 35% of African American women over 18 had ever been married. Experts attribute this decrease to factors including a shortage of marriageable African American men and to structural, social, and economic factors. Black males have a 32 percent chance of serving time in prison, as compared to 6 percent of white males. Nearly one in three African American men in their twenties is in prison, on parole, or on probation. Blacks account for 28% of arrests even though they represent only 13% of the nations population. These realities decrease an African American womanÃ¢â¬â¢s chances of finding a marriageable mate. Conflict Theory suggests that Higher arrest rate is not surprising for a group that is disproportionately poor and therefore much less able to afford private attorneys, who might prevent formal arrests from taking place Parenting and Discipline African American families tend to be more strict, to hold demanding behavioral standards, and to use physical discipline. This is however, balanced within a context of strong support and affection. Physical punishment among African American families usually doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t result in the same negative outcomes as it does for white children. Income and wealth In 2005 Median income of Black families was $37,500 compared with $64,663 for White non-Hispanic households. Black income today resembles that of Whites more than 10 years ago. African American unemployment is 11. 2 percent, which is more than double that of whites. Factors explaining official unemployment rate of young African American males * Many live in depressed economy of central cities * Immigrants and illegal aliens present increased competition * White middle-class women entered the labor force * Illegal activities at which youth find they can make more money have become more prevalent One in four African Americans are poor, compared to one in twelve whites Politics President Kennedy, in a 1961 executive order, was the first president to call for affirmative action by prohibiting discrimination against minorities by contractors who receive federal funds. The order also told them to hire and promote minorities. Supporters of affirmative action sought not just equality of opportunity but equality of results. The fact that millions of Americans, both black and white, hoped that retired General Colin Powell, an African American, would run for president in 1996 was a milestone. The color of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s skin was no longer a barrier to seeking the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s highest office. By 2004, there were 39 African Americans in the House of Representatives and more than 9,101 others in elective offices throughout the nation. Three African Americans served in the cabinet, and another sat on the Supreme Court. * Four hundred forty-five African Americans were mayors of major cities. * A federal holiday is now observed for Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. * Retired General Colin Powell held the highest military post * On January 20, 2009 Barrack Obama was sworn in as the 44th president of the Unites States. His inauguration was attended by an estimated 1. 8 million people on the Washington National Mall, the Capital grounds, and the parade route. Hundreds of millions in the country and around the world watched the historical event on television. Stressing unity, responsibility, change, and action. Obama declared,Ã¢â¬ Starting today we must pick ourselves up, dust ourselves off, and begin again, the work of remaking America. Ã¢â¬ Slavery Part of the control mechanism of slavery was to strip African Americans of identity, language, and culture of their homeland. This was done by undermining and replacing family structures with temporary ones built around identity as slaves. This undermining was not however entirely successful as many slaves organized themselves into family structures very similar to nuclear families. n). Baltimore, Maryland Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration: African American Families. (2001). Retrieved on July 11, 2005 from p2001. health. org/cit04/res7. htm Webb, Nancy Boyd. (2001). Culturally Diverse Parent-Child and Family Relationships. New York: Columbia University Press. Woods, L. & Jagers, R. (2003). Are Cultural Values Predictors of Moral Reasoning in African American Adolescents? Journal of Black Psychology, 29, 102-118. Marger, M. N. (2012). Race and ethnic relations: American and global perspectives, ninth edition. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Rastogi, S. , Johnson, T. D. , Hoeffel, E. M. , & Drewery, J. (2011, September). Retrieved from http://www. census. gov/prod/cen2010/briefs/c2010br-06. pdf Live text Upload * Courses Main Page > * SOC 240 HY 20 Ã¢â¬â CLTR SSCI > * SOC 240 HY 20 Ã¢â¬â CLTR SSCI Assignments.
How are fashion and appearance central to the construction of social identities? Fashion can be defined as the prevalent style and custom at a certain point in time. Besides being necessary and protecting us, clothing also shapes and defines us in the cultural, social and psychological aspect. It has been a part of culture and identity since the earliest of times. We live in a world where fashion and clothing play a significant role in shaping and determining the identity and social image of people. This physical appearance often determines other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s impressions of us and becomes a measurement of our self-worth.Nowadays with an increased self-consciousness, establishing the social identity of a person, fashion and appearance have played a crucial role. Wilson (1992: 13) has said, Ã¢â¬Ëclothing in fact, has the unique characteristic of being able to express ideas about sex and the body while simultaneously it actually adorns the body. Ã¢â¬â¢ While sexuality for both me n and women has largely been shaped by the central ideas of fashion and appearance, there is evidence indicating women have been impacted more by the influences of fashion than men have.Therefore it is possible to say women, who are strongly influenced by fashion, may be more susceptible to social identities as Craik (1994: 176) said, Ã¢â¬Ëwomen are fashionable but men are not. Ã¢â¬â¢ Although Finkelstein (1996: 56) has argued that, Ã¢â¬Ëfashion has been seen as a device for confining women to an inferior social order,Ã¢â¬â¢ showing that these identities have not and are not always positive and empowering. In the concept of the Ã¢â¬Ëmale gaze,Ã¢â¬â¢ the relationship between sex and sexuality in womenÃ¢â¬â¢s fashion is entirely geared towards pleasing and catering to the male sexual desires.Although Craik (1993: 156) argues that, Ã¢â¬Ëdespite the rhetoric that women dress to please men, other evidence suggest that women primarily dress to please other women. Further, there is no clear pattern as to whose Ã¢â¬ËeyesÃ¢â¬â¢ women view other women through. Ã¢â¬â¢ To see the progression of how fashion and appearance has become what it is and what it represents in the world today in creating social identities, the past plays a huge role.After the regimented discipline of World War II where fashion was purely functional, uniform and designed to blend in with the background there was a period where tough economic frugality which included rationing of almost every product, the unavailability of fabrics due to the collapse of the UK textile industry, very few imports because foreign currency restrictions and a general impoverishment of society as a whole. The fifties saw a gradual lifting of the stringent restrictions and along with the introduction of television and American made programming; a new sense of optimism took hold in the UK.Programmes such as girl Ã ¬Ã ¬Ã ¬Ã ¬Ã ¬Ã ¬debutantes (See Fig. 1) gave women a role of their own in society, unlike the Ã¢â¬Ësurrogate mensÃ¢â¬â¢ jobs in industry that they had to endure during the war. Sex and sexuality however was not key in the fashions of the time. The Calvinistic influence of the southern states American Ã¢â¬ËBible BeltÃ¢â¬â¢ in politics and popular culture determined distinct roles for women, and even though there were the beginnings of change, the only careers open were those of housewives, teachers and nurses.And then, with the dawn of the sixties, everything changed. America elected a young handsome president, JF Kennedy, the birth control pill was launched and a four piece band from Liverpool called the Beatles became gods for a whole new grouping. The teenager. Teenagers were rebellious, questioning, and everything that their parents were not. In America they protested against the Vietnam War while in England they questioned all authority from the local police constable to the Queen herself.Sexuality, and sex was everything and it was born out in the sty les and colours of Carnaby Street, the mini skirt, Twiggy and the twist. The boring military uniform was transformed into the rainbow colours of the BeatlesÃ¢â¬â¢ Sergeant Pepper and the crew cut became a mop top. By the time the seventies arrived, division had to appear. Free Love and LSD resulted in addiction and sex-for-sale and fashions split the youth into Mods or Rockers. A macho motorbike riding image was adopted by the rockers, wearing clothes such as black leather jackets and listening to the likes of Elvis and Gene Vincent.While the mods, wearing designer suits protected by Parka jackets and other clean-cut outfits, adopted riding Vespa or Lambretta scooters. Mods favoured listening to rhythm and blues, Ska music and The Who. The mods attention to detail and obsession with style was the complete contrast to their arch rivals the rockersÃ¢â¬â¢ love of motor cycles and leather jackets and this often cause friction between the two subcultures. These two subcultures faded from the public view by the late 1960s and media attention turned to two new emerging youth subcultures Ã¢â¬â the hippies and the skinheads.So, sex and sexuality only became a central theme and basis for fashion and appearance from the 60s and 70s and has developed and expanded on a monumental scale until today, and will continue to do so. Given the strong connection more so between female sexuality and fashion, many people have begun to discuss the ways in which identity and perception from fashion have influenced certain ways women think they Ã¢â¬ËshouldÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬Ëhave toÃ¢â¬â¢ look like. This couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be more evident than in the media advertisements that surround our environment constantly.These thoughts can often be distorted and obscured, not necessarily the truth and reality of what the average women looks like. Media advertisements for fashion, more often than not, show how women could change or improve their appearance and this is where womenÃ¢â¬â¢s t houghts and perceptions are drawn from. The easy answer could come from the idea that Ã¢â¬Ësex sellsÃ¢â¬â¢ which is the truth and reality of today. For many products being advertised it is possible to find a sexual connection or connotation.This sexual connection it much easier to set up for men than for women, as menÃ¢â¬â¢s sexual desire have minimal criteria; as long as a women looks healthy and young enough, she is desired. By using womenÃ¢â¬â¢s bodies and associate Ã¢â¬Ëgetting the womanÃ¢â¬â¢ with the product, it is easier getting a manÃ¢â¬â¢s attention. Thus, playing on his instinctive view rather than his intellectual view of the world. Using sex in advertising to women can be much more difficult, as women are looking for more than mere anatomy. This becomes a cycle where advertising can sell the product because Ã¢â¬Å"women want this Ã¢â¬ËproductÃ¢â¬â¢ in a man.Get the product, get the woman. Ã¢â¬ The use of healthy, fit men does attract a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s instinctive attention and create desire but sexual desire for women is more complex. Women tend to not only focus on manÃ¢â¬â¢s physical appearance, but are also corned with the long-run and future with a partner. These factors are often learned through culture and society. Tom FordÃ¢â¬â¢s advertisements for the launch of a male perfume (See Fig. 3) has been considered to be highly controversial, while at the same time it provides insight into the world of advertising sex and appeal and how it works.Tom FordÃ¢â¬â¢s advert is full of suggestion and imagination; the perfume bottle between the womanÃ¢â¬â¢s breasts could suggest male genital, not simply just a perfume bottle, creating a very erotic and adventurous feeling to the advert. This therefore makes it extremely appealing to any male who comes across the advert. Male instinct kicks in and immediately it becomes about if I buys this product then will I get lucky in the bedroom? D & G advertisement promoting their 2007 re ady-to-wear collection (See Fig. 4) has also received a lot of controversial feedback.The advertisement showed a woman pinned to the ground by the wrist by a shirtless man, with other men in the background looking on. It is possible to say that the female figure is shown in a degrading manner and offending the dignity of the individual. This can be contrasted by the fact that in her role it can appear that sheÃ¢â¬â¢s actually willing to yield and surrender to the manÃ¢â¬â¢s aggressive behaviour willingly. From Biological Basis of Human Behaviour males have often linked sex and aggression to a certain degree and therefore in return females have learnt this association as well.And in a way if she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t enjoy it, it didnÃ¢â¬â¢t matter as long as life was create as a result. So, this advert could represent a learned role of females that is possibly now acceptable, enjoyable to an extent and even desired. Thus, it is clear that sex is a strong appeal to use in advertising e ven though it can be gender linked appeal. Fashion and appearance have repeatedly shown to have a massive, immediate and sometimes potent effect on the public in a wide range or circumstances.In particular womenÃ¢â¬â¢s appearance seems to play a key role to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s identity and self. Chapkis (1986) has said that, Ã¢â¬Ëa women is made to feel continually insecure about her physical appearance, and simultaneously so dependent on it. Ã¢â¬â¢ Women, more so than men, are willing to go to dangerous and sometimes painful lengths in order to Ã¢â¬ËimproveÃ¢â¬â¢ and alter their appearance. Thus feeling like we fit with the desired lifestyle and with what is considered socially normal and acceptable in society today.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
How effectively the systems and processes being deployed within the organization have aligned to deliver the organizations performance objectives - Essay Example The paper presents business operations as the function which plans and estimates the day to day activities within an organization. Operations refer to the most important functions in an organization, as it manages all the activities in the organization. Ideally, business operations ensure the following factors. Ã¯ ¶ All internal groups are integrated into the same plan with well prescribed roles and responsibilities Ã¯ ¶ All internal operating groups perform together as one unit, to make sure operational integrity, development of business, risk management and resource management, allocation of resources, and overall the finest practices. Ã¯ ¶ Successful communication among other functional departments within the company. Ã¯ ¶ Participating in business planning for developing strategies. Ã¯ ¶ Working within the constraints of an integrated budget, and combining all fiscal practices, while following other recognized policies, procedures and controls. Ã¢â¬Å"While operations are generally well understood and structured in most large organizations, business operations in many small to medium sized companies tend to be less clear. It is not unusual to see functional lines or boundaries blur together or; departmental responsibility and accountability shared by many people within one organizationÃ¢â¬ . The systems and processes play a very significant role in accomplishing the goals and objectives of the organization. The organizations emphasize in their reports about how much they rely on the operation and systems. The operations of business changes from organization to organization. It concentrates on the volume and character of the business. It depends, whether the company focuses on products or services, and whether the operation is small or large. Here we have accepted SAMBRO International as our choice for the organization analysis. Ã¢â¬Å"Sambro International Ltd is a private company categorized under Hobby, Toy, and Game Shops and located in Manchester, United KingdomÃ¢â¬ (Sambro International Limited 2012). It has established as one of the major companies in toy manufacturing in Britain. It is a privately owned manufacturing firm, founded in 1996. The company has two different sections. 1) New World Toys 2) Stocklot. New World Toys produces and distributes their elite certified goods, and their own brand goods. Stocklot is the company which deals in clearaning stock in European and UK countries, through multiple retail channels. Stocklot mainly focuses on the trading of big brands, and children's character merchandise at very low prices. The company keeps growing with its innovative operation technologies and us e of advanced systems, to develop production processes. The processes and systems are executed to attain strategic goals of the industry. The mainly significant thing is that they should make sure that these processes are in line with the envisaged strategic goals. Emphasis on design, execution, and measure are necessary for the improvement of business operations and processes. The cycle of this process is a never ending process and an ever lasting process, as it aims at continuous improvement. Certain steps and taken in designing and executing the right technology based machineries for document supervision, project application, integration, and workflows, to assist process administration and alter process. These are the theories followed by the Sambro International for their uninterrupted flow of production. Ã¢â¬Å"One frequent question is how operations differ from project managers. The main difference is that, project managers are focus on the success of their projects, while the operational wing focuses on the success of the officeÃ¢â¬ (Barry 2010). The Role of Operations in Business: The role of operations within an organization is
Media, Culture, and Society - Essay Example Women had been limited to serve the family. Women, during BettyÃ¢â¬â¢s time period, were not allowed to find a male job (Curran 147). Second, Betty could choose to walk the uncharted and unfamiliar path. Betty decided to choose the less travelled road. Betty chose to be an engineer. Society during BettyÃ¢â¬â¢s time reserved the engineering jobs to the male members of society. BettyÃ¢â¬â¢s boss also believes that BettyÃ¢â¬â¢s place should be at home. BettyÃ¢â¬â¢s friends were strongly against BettyÃ¢â¬â¢s determination to become an engineer. Evidently, the story emphasizes that TV shows incorporate luminal and bardic functions of popular entertain as a cultural forum for people to espouse their agreement or disagreement on WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s swerving away from their normal charted paths, like having menÃ¢â¬â¢s jobs (Curran 147). Question 2. Mass Media is cultural forum. Mass media facilitates discussion concerning its television shows (Lull 157). People see television shows, watch a movie, read newspapers, hear news, views, and music from the radio stations, and research the internet. All these are media outlets. Mass media is a powerful tool that can change the minds of the viewers or listeners. Father Knows Best focuses on a family that represents a minor group of families in the United States during the 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s era. ... Television brainwashes American Society to break away from tradition and go where no one has gone before. Consequently, the television show is considered a site of ideological contention, despite its attempts at ideological containment. The Father Knows Best television series espouses that family members must go out of their way to ensure the family is always happy, considered ideological containment. The television show creates a twist that makes the television viewers decide whether women and their families can go against tradition by allowing Betty to be an engineer, doing home chores and making babies. Mass media is espousing ideological containment because the television series, love boat caters to the television audienceÃ¢â¬â¢s love cravings. The Love Boat television series creates a cultural forum among the television viewers as they discuss and defend their own opinions regarding The Love Boat issues. Question 3. Both Newcomb and Hirsch correctly espouse that television is a cultural forum (), where people debate issues shown in mass mediaÃ¢â¬â¢s television shows, being the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s ideological apparatus or voice. The two authors insist that the televisionÃ¢â¬â¢s glaring messages normally influence or alter the television audiencesÃ¢â¬â¢ current position on certain cultural issues (Edgerton 58). The television image of commercials portraying sexy women as beautiful creates loyalists and detractors of such Ã¢â¬Å"slender is inÃ¢â¬ concepts. The authors emphasize that the mass media, especially the television shows can make or break a person, family, or community. Consequently, people come together to discuss their viewpoints on the television shows, including the Father Knows Best television series. Mass media tries to make the people take a stand and to
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
International management - Essay Example This will call for development, implementation and control of marketing strategies needed to attain and sustain firmÃ¢â¬â¢s competitive advantage through analysis and evaluation of contemporary issues in the marketing practice and development of a strategic marketing plan. The purpose of competitive strategy is to achieve sustainable competitive advantage to enhance business financial performance and recognizing relationships between elements of marketing mix and assessment of the competitive aspects of the market and industry structure. Firms competing in foreign markets may choose to adapt their products to fit local market needs or to standardize their offer so as to keep costs low, and to understand principles and behaviors underlying appropriate methods and effective performance I project based teams. Introduction Hewlett-Packard Company is a multinational information and technology corporation that provides hard ware, software, and technological services to final end consumer s, small and medium enterprises and large enterprises including governments, health and education sectors. It has a significant global market share specializing in developing and manufacturing networking hardware, computing networks and software, data storage and delivery of innovation and technological services to its clients. The firm sells its products and services directly to the consumers via online distribution, retail outlets such as consumer electronics and office supply, partnership production and consulting with major technology vendors. With a wide range of products in its line the company boasts diversification in enterprise security services such as network security, information security and information assurance compliancy, wireless access points, mobile applications, analytics and portfolio management software (HP.com). Whenever firms go international, major marketing decision to be made is what marketing program is to be devised; choice between development of a globa l product and creation of adapted product that satisfies foreign marketÃ¢â¬â¢s consumer needs while meeting the global efficiency goals and responsiveness (Qian & N.B.E.R, 2012, 4). This paper will seek to evaluate the international marketing strategy by Hewlett-Packard Company [HP] and evaluate the effectiveness for its products and the impacts of the strategy in its global standards and market share. International Marketing Strategy As an international corporation HP Company has applied several international marketing strategies in a bid to acquire significant market share and coupled by the industry it is in, its innovative strategies of production gives it market sustainability. The logic behind this is formulation of competitive marketing strategies such as relationship marketing which serve as a moderator for sustenance of positional advantages (Peterson, 2007, 2) coupled with the production competitive advantage gives the firm positive impacts of competition and market cond itions on the formulation of other marketing strategies. Literature Review Standardization is selling of the same products in all markets regardless of the economic, socio- cultural and economic backgrounds; a driving force of globalization trends in the market due to higher convergence of consumer needs, tastes and preferences, more technological uniformity and
Controversy within Human Resources - Research Paper Example This essay paper seeks to explore controversial behavior of one human resource manager of a U.S company that sought anonymity to avoid court cases on the ground of defamation (Bach p120). However, not all people disagree with the way he discharges since some professionals believe that he is impartial in his work. Hiring of staff It is the mandate of any human resource department to get new employees for a company. Hiring is due to needs that have risen in operations or gaps that need to be filled either due to resignations, quitting from job, dismissal, promotion and staff getting new jobs in other companies among other reasons. Firing comes in when management cracks the whip on certain undisciplined personnel or unproductive staff. However, this is not implemented with immediate effect but is preceded by series of warnings that are on record. It is done when a company canÃ¢â¬â¢t tolerate a certain employee anymore, and the only option remaining to explore is firing. In the company under scrutiny here, the human resource manager is charged with putting job adverts across, conduct interviews and confirms hiring of any new staff after the process is duly followed (Price p29). Though every job advert put across says that this company is an equal employer and discourages canvassing, this seems to be done differently. An important point to put across here is that the manager in question is a black American and is known to act in favor of management to avoid being reprimanded. Hiring policies in this company have been drafted to favor the company whereby he prefers to hire female employees even though a certain job is more inclined to the masculine gender as opposed to the feminine gender. Not all female applicants go through the full process of hiring since some canvass on the way by the manner of sexual favors to this human resource manager. This is, however, not for applicants who are American citizens since American citizens usually get first priority in any jo b advert regardless of qualifications. No enough reasons can explain why this is done this way yet management does not raise an alarm over his conduct causing employees to conclude that management as well has racial discrimination. Firing of staff Firing, on the other hand, is done in an awkward manner since no due process is put in place to show an employee why he got fired. The policies that this human resource manager found in place were said to be aged and thus the need for change. The change that followed was not practical since many clauses, which sought to strike a balance between Americans and non-Americans were phased out. This was done to make it difficult for non-Americans to get hired in this company and this has happened at the reign of this human resource manager. Several staffs who are not U.S citizens have been fired under undue grounds cited by human resource manager. Staffs are also required to carry with them their national identity cards to show their nationality and make it easier for human resource to do his duty Ã¢â¬ËwellÃ¢â¬â¢. This has led to total controversy and staff unrest and some American staff have even gone ahead and expressed dissatisfaction on the conduct of this human resource manager. Some of the Americans who have complained against his conduct are furnished with strict warnings though they have continued to show solidarity with
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
The relevance that the study of Shakespeares Romeo and Juliet has to the modern world - Assignment Example Social power means the differences among important families, tribes, and gangs and how it interferes or helps with the social order. Family order involves the differences between the family's beliefs, religion and culture and how these beliefs affect Society. These themes are addressed in the play. Examples will be quoted and shown how they play a part in the modern world. Ã Ã Whether it be 2 families or two tribes or a group of people, hatred exists because of a various of reasons. Shakespeare never gives an explanation of why the Capulet and Montague hate . In the Prologue, the families, their servants and friends start in a street fight, "from ancient grudge break new mutiny" (p.31). In Act 1 scene 1 the servants don't even know why they are fighting. The insulting image of showing the thumb is inviting one to a fight. Sampson "I will show myself a tyrant: when I have fought with the men I will be civil with the maids and cut off their heads"(line25-26,Act1.1,p.32) Shakespea re's point is to show that old grudges are often without reason. They are the start of problems in ethnic tribal wars, religious wars and in border conflicts. The initial reason is often forgotten or based on unimportant fact. Act1 Scene1, the opening scene shows how the two families hate each other. Everyone gets involve including Lord Capulet and Montague. No one gets hurt. There are a lot of bad feelings and insults of women and families as already mentioned. Benvolio is a peacemaker. Tybalt hates the word peace "What, drawn, and talk of peace! I hate the word". (line 15, Act1.1, p 34) Act3 Scene1 It was hot and miserable outside. Mercutio was hot headed (mercury). He picked a fight with the Capulet, Tybalt who hated peace. "Come sir, your passado" (Act3.1,p 82). "Hold Tybalt, good Mercutio". Tybalt went and stabbed Mercutio. Romeo: "Mercutio slain away to heaven...Either thou or I, or both, must go with him."(Actt3.1,p84) Romeo kills Tybalt. Romeo: O I am fortune's fool.(p 84) P rince: "And for that offence , immediatly we do exile him hence". (p86) Romeo was exiled from Verona which is the same thing as being dead. Both these scenes represent two stages in the theory of hate: going from verbal abuse to passing to violence. We can learn from Shakespeare that the stages of hate are universal. Romeo's compulsive behaviour is also the way gangs behave. Ã When the Prince arrives in ActIII Scene1 to break up the fight, he is doing it to resolve an immediate problem of keeping peace and order. In modern day police, law and order is used for non violent fights and crimes. Hate crime, gang fighting and council violence have become a science which is studied so it can be identified at the beginning before the violent crime is performed. Nurse: "Tybalt is gone and Romeo banished, Romeo that kill'd him, he is banished (Act3.2 p89) Romeo:Ã ".....What love can do, that dares love attempt?.....".(Act2.2,p61)" Romeo and Juliet's feelings and emotions are universal f or two people in love. As they were young and inexperienced, their passion was strong . Juliet was ashamed that she showed too much of her true self and her feelings to Romeo. "Thou knowest the mask of night is on my face; else would a maiden blush bepaint my cheek." (Act2.2,p61) The rebellion of wanting to get married the next day would be translated as going out without a parent's permission or the first sexual encounter. The first love is strong and without limits. Throughout history, it was common to gain social status by choosing the right spouse for their child. Love was of little or no value. Marriage were often by child brides . Lady Capulet: "How stands your disposition to be married? It is an honour that I dream not of". (Act1.3,p45) She was only 12 or 14
Professional Ethics and Responsibilities in Computer Technology - Research Paper Example However, software developers, individuals and businesses have to think about the rights and wrongs of making use of the information technology every day. The basic concerns essential to the world of IT are the end user's anticipations of privacy and the provider's ethical responsibility to utilize email or applications (Katers, 2012). Due to quickly changing environment of information technology, new and complex ethical concerns are emerging that bring into question the capability of society to tackle, and self-confidently resolve them. These serious issues and concerns are taking place in different fields such as information technology, biotechnology, nuclear technology, nanotechnology (Kastenberg, 2011). This paper discusses the role of the professional ethics and responsibilities in computer technology. The basic aim of this research is to discuss the importance and relevance of computer ethics in information technology. ... Moreover, in a business environment, some of the important professional ethical issues can be: (Sembok, 2003; Duke University, 2011) Managing human resource issues Impartiality in data analysis and professional consulting Data privacy Resolution of conflicts of interest Professional accountability Software piracy Academic honesty Adherence to confidentiality agreements In addition, the problems and issues of IT Ethics have recently turned out to be the biggest challenge for business organizations as well as individuals. In this scenario, the potential to put huge material on the web has attracted a vast majority of people. However, developing systems and applications have quietly concealed the issues and complexities as well as aggravations that were concerned in writing HTML; increasingly websites are being developed by people with a comparatively diffident quantity of computer systems (Schweitzer, 2005). The incorporation of new technology based systems has been almost never so sim ple. Moreover, as the web started to expand out of its shortened immaturity, a wide variety of new problems and concerns emerged repeatedly, and a majority of concerns and issues remained unresolved. Moreover, a lot of problems and concerns hold powerful ethics related data and information content. As the potential to arrive at millions of people immediately has passed into the hands of the individuals, the quick emergence of thorny ethical concerns is probable to carry-on unabated (Schweitzer, 2005). Common Dilemmas As ethics is not a black-and-white topic, the choices we formulate could affect our business or even our living. There are numerous ethical problems that can happen while making use of networking, social media or any IT based
Monday, August 26, 2019
How do you define Academic Freedom and Academic Duty. How might these concepts contrast and what are some of the dilemmas that may arise as a result - Essay Example Academic freedom is the liberty to disseminate information or teach as someone deems fit, to do research in any of the area of choice of the researcher without any restraint and to ascertain and disseminate novel ideas irrespective of their controversial nature (Kennedy, 1997, Page 1, Line 3-6). As in other types of conventional freedoms, governments, individuals and authorities are required to permit the researchers to work with complete freedom and ensure that freedom in such work is not hindered.In fact, academic freedom requires the society to provide such an environment which nourishes novel notions and allows the scholars to freely express them. Historically, the world has seen quite a number of examples which depict the importance of academic freedom. Many famous intellectuals and researchers were sentenced to death or life imprisonment for preaching their novel ideas. For instance Socrates had to see the face of gallows for preaching and corrupting AthensÃ¢â¬â¢s youth. Similarly, Galileo advocated Solar SystemÃ¢â¬â¢s Copernican view and was thus imprisoned for life. Descartes had to restrain himself from writing controversial notes to avoid trouble. Many teachers had to lose their jobs for teaching DarwinÃ¢â¬â¢s theory to their students. Although ideas of these great scholars and researchers were able to survive, it is not known that how many ideas were not allowed to ne promulgated due to lack of academic freedom(Robinson & Moulton, 2002, Page 1, Line 7-12). The practice of inhibiting academic freedom can also be seen in the modern history. In 1950s, anti-communist sentiment broke and universities were pressurized by WilÃ liam Jenner and Joseph McCarthy in the house and senate respectively to fire teachers whose ideas were considered sympathetic towards aims of the communists. The authorities and governments of those times variedly reacted to the situation however, this pressurization led to the universities to protect the academic freedom of
Extended Education - Research Paper Example This essay declares that the US president backs this suggestion with an argument that the system is not just aiming to curb unemployment but give the US population a good stepping-stone into the future. For this reason, this kind of education aims at providing the learners with skills and opportunities that they would not have achieved by 12th grade as well as providing them with measurable differentiated skills. This paper makes a conclusion that US is currently facing financial crisis and setting up a further a compulsory 2 years learning system requires a lot of financial assistance that may add to the list of the already suffering financial status of the country. Indeed according to CIA fact book and National Bureau of Economic Research the current US deficit stood at $487.2 billion by 2012. Compared to the rest of the countries in the world, the US deficit is the highest in the world. This figure indicates that the country is importing more goods and services than its exporting. The country is also in high debts from foreign countries and has a higher consumer debt. If this situation continues, the value of its currency depreciates and investors will not be willing to invest into a country that is facing such huge financial crisis. The increasing numbers of online degrees and masters courses pose a greater challenge to the extended education. This is because most of the online institutio ns are easily accessible, efficient, and cheaper in comparison to community colleges that will require an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s attendance. ... In addition to this, there will be need to train more teachers, experts, and technicians who will be required to offer their services to the community colleges (Jeff Zeleny). With the differences in different States around US there is likely to be a gap in this institutions based on the kind of resources and technology the State has. The difference resources in terms of technology are also likely to create a disparity in terms of professionalism. The increasing numbers of online degrees and masters courses pose a greater challenge to the extended education. This is because most of the online institutions are easily accessible, efficient, and cheaper in comparison to community colleges that will require an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s attendance. For this reason, I suggest that learners engage in higher institutions like universities and involve in further education and training rather than wasting 2 precious years in community college. This is likely to affect negatively on the labor market, as qualified labor will have to stay for two years before employment. The policy makers have failed to address how to close the gap that will be left when these institutions begin doing the system. Rising tuition costs especially for higher education is creating a challenge to the implementation of the extended education. Most of the community colleges are experiencing institutional funding shortfalls while the declining state of the quality of higher education is also adding to the challenges of rolling extended education. Extended education is not likely to contribute to increasingly competitive economy that requires proper education and skills of its workers. For this reason, there is need for students or the
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Economics as a instrument of power to curb Pakistan nuclear weapons buildup - Term Paper Example Economics as a subject is at the centre of world attention, as it is through it that nations could face problems in their societies, ranging from stock market crash, to disasters, to devaluation of the currency or depression, economics involve the use of limited resources, its management and procuring additional resources. It is the method procurement which often runs debates in the local, as well in the international circles. Locally, the government might agree or disagree to views, and internationally rivals may limit the access to strategic resources (Chun, pp 4-5). The following report explores how economics is an element of national power and how has it helped to curb possible terrorist threats from certain third world countries like Pakistan. PakistanÃ¢â¬â¢s nuclear arms build up Pakistan is a developing country situated in Asia, and suffers from many economics problems. It requires billions of dollars in foreign aid to feed its people, impart education to children and to fig ht insurgents, yet it was in the process of building a fourth nuclear reactor to produce more weapon fuel. Experts suggest that even without a reactor it had manufactured fuel for additional weapons and can soon be the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s fifth largest arsenal, ahead of India and Britain. Threats include a possible takeover by the terrorists or the extremists by toppling the government of Pakistan and that can lead to a disaster. The biggest threat for Pakistan is not India, but rather the Taliban, and this has to be understood. Policies that can stop this mad race for nuclear arms can be taken by the United States by simply stopping all its financial help, but it can lead a whole lot of complications and destabilize Pakistan. What the US realizes is that stopping it is very difficult as countries such as India and China are also involved in the arms build ups, but slowing it down can be of significant help (Pakistan's Nuclear Folly, 2011). How economics can be used as an element of powe r Most people think of national power related to military power, there actually a lot more to it than the use of military power. A strong economy is that which can allow its leaders to choose some appropriate or desired end. Initially the United States had defined what people used to call an economic power. It had led the war against the Axis powers, fed millions of people around the world in aid and supplied materials wherever required. As times have changed and with the advent of Globalization the United States and other countries have to go beyond shores to get what they need. National leaderships can take various economic approaches to address any impending security concerns, by various economic methods. A country can always persuade or use its influence to change certain policies of other countries, such as reducing a trade import policy can make another nation agree to certain terms. A powerful country like the USA could force to change the behavior of any of its adversaries i f they pose any threat to international security. Lastly, a nation can end certain capabilities of the other nation by defeating them in some aim, such as overproducing something which the rival aims to produce to a certain capacity (Chun, pp.8-9). How the US achieves its goals as an economic power Foreign aid is a major component of the US budget and important for
Gender&Global cinema - Essay Example Identifying the concepts of marginalization and gender definitions in global film shows how the boundaries of gender are defined in various regions of society. Two films which portray this theme are A Question of Silence by Marleen Gorris and The Housemaid by Im Sang Ã¢â¬â Soo. The discourse of feminist theory in A Question of Silence is one which shows several areas of boundaries and marginalization, as well as a question of gender identity. The portrayal of the three women are first depicted, all which take on a traditional identity in terms of gender. However, this is broken when they move from shoplifting different items to beating the male shopkeeper to death. This specific action sets the gender identity into motion, specifically because the action is one which is not expected in relation to the female gender identity. The shock which this leaves is one which creates a suspicion that the women are insane and that the actions which were warranted were because of mental instability. After finding that this is not true, there becomes a question of what the intent was of beating the male shopkeeper, specifically because of the associated anger that was taken with the actions (Gorris, 1). The feminist discourse which is associated with this film is based on the silence of the women as well as the stereotypes and immediate associations with gender identity which is portrayed. The silent association with the fight is one which is displayed through the actions which the women take as well as the shift in actions. The narrative is one which depicts silence after the action which is taken; however, the women are all known to fight the male domination in society through the action of beating the male shopkeeper to death. The metaphor of violence, as well as the following assumptions, all show the concept of feminist identity and the marginalization which the women are placed into. The violence becomes a way to speak about the male domination in society as
Sports Nutrition - Training Advice (Menu Planning, Recovery Snacks, Fluids, Supplements) - Essay Example Therefore, to ensure that the demands on the athlete's body are well met, it is essential to make a Menu Planning, not only based on what the athlete enjoys eating but also what the athlete is needing to accomplish the daily calorie intake (Coyle, 2004):36). In addition, the portion of each food component in the menu will change, based on the level of the training activity of the athlete, current weight, height and age of the athlete (Stouffer, 2002:7). Thus, for Pete, the following Balanced Menu Planning has been customized, based on bodily calorie intake needs and the training activity levels. The customized menu has been informed by the fact that under the Dietary Assessment and Hydration section in Part I, it was recommended that Pete should reduce both his protein and fat intakes, and increase his carbohydrates intake. The Recovery snacks are as important to the body of an athlete, just like the breakfast is considered to be the most important meal of the day (Burke & Deakin, 2010:17). During the marathon training activity, an athlete can break down both the muscle and the red blood cells, while also using all the stored up glycogen and also sweating up to two litres of water (Volpe, 2006:24). Therefore, what an athlete consumes after training is crucial both for the athleteÃ¢â¬â¢s performance and also recovery, while also supporting the immune system to handle anybody damages sustained during training (Manore & Thompson, 2010:33). The consumption of recovery snacks, therefore, is one way through which replenishing the muscles and restoring liver glycogen are attained, thus enabling the positive recovery and future performance. The consumption of recovery snacks also helps the athleteÃ¢â¬â¢s body to attain the necessary protein needed for tissue repair, as well as the restoration of fluids and electrolytes that are lost during sweating (Burke, 2007:12). Thus, the following is a Recovery Snack Menu customized for Pete.Ã Ã
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Violating Company Social Networking Policy - Assignment Example NLRB ruled in favor of the employer because it is important that the activity should be concerted in order to provide relief to the employee in such cases. In this case, the employee was properly disciplined and therefore there was nothing wrong in it, according to the ruling and judgment of NLRB. Ã I agree with the decision of NLRB because it is also important to protect the rights of the employer. There are guidelines which NLRB has to follow and in this case, they have followed the guidelines. NLRB makes sure that rights of employees are not violated and employment terms are such that use of social media activity against employer does not become grounds for termination (Belicove, 2012). But the social media activity should be concerted, meaning that the employee should take up the issue with other employees before posting something online regarding his or her employer. This was not done and therefore this case was decided in favor of the employer. The decision was accurate because it was based on the laws and guidelines of NLRB and the termination of the employee was not legal because he did not talk about the issue with his fellow employees. Ã The decision would not have been taking in a positive way in any organization by the employees. Employees would feel that they were violated and employer got off because of a technical issue. The issue would have created many work-related problems and moral issues in any organization. Employees have a natural tendency to think positively regarding their fellow employees. Also because in this case the employee posted something that was very true and therefore sympathies of employee would always be with him. This would worsen the employee relations in any company and more and more of such cases would come up which will negatively affect employee productivity. Ã
Compare and contrast how do TV ads and Google Ads target customers, and what's their own advantages and disadvantages in that - Research Proposal Example The nature of the product is very important because there are some products and services which can only be advertised on TV because of their common use. Though the use of internet is increasing very much but still we can say that there are many old age people or many other ones who are not interested in the internet based technological world. For those customers the companies may have to revise their marketing strategies. For this kind of targeted part of market the companies may have to focus on the television as the advertising media for the promotion of their products and services. With the help of this research study we will try to provide a deep insight about the development of internet advertising as a tool. Despite the above mentioned part of market that is not interested in the online activities and thus not affected by the Google ads, the other maximum part of the target market is really affected by the internet advertisements. The use of internet is widely increased in the past few years. The research study shows that in the past decades the television advertising is the main source of product promotion for the companies (Lowrey, McCarty & Shrum 2004). But now the preference has been changes and the people are now more focused on the internet ads. The reason behind the change in the behavior is that now the internet is involved in maximum of the activities of the people. They are spending most of the leisure time on internet or on social media. Focusing on the interests of the people companies take advantage of this technology and start using internet a s the tool of advertising. And this strategy is very much famous now for most of the companies or businesses. This research paper will provide an overview of the online and TV advertisements and also the evaluation of both of them so that anyone can easily assess the level of
Generic Business Strategies and Advantage of Tourist Companies - Statistics Project Example In business research, multiple regression is applied for two main purposes that are closely related. The first purpose it for prediction of relationships. When using it for this purpose the researcher seeks to find the linear combination of a set of predictor variables that give the best estimates for a dependent variable across a number of different observations (Franses and Paap, 2004). The accuracy of prediction of the multiple regressions model is measured by the magnitude of R2 as well as the statistical significance of the entire model. On the other hand, if the prediction provided by the model is statistically significant overall, then multiple regression analysis is used to draw conclusions about all the individual predictor/independent variables (Wei, 2006). Basically, the statistics obtained from multiple regression models are applied in testing the hypotheses regarding the effects of individual independent variables on the dependent variable (Cryer and Chan, 2008). Ã Multiple regression has been basically described as a statistical technique that allows a researcher to predict an entityÃ¢â¬â¢s score on one variable on the basis of its scores on several other variables (Mason and Perreault, 2001). The variable on which the score is being predicted is referred to as the dependent variables while the others are the predictor variables. In this exercise, multiple regressions are applied in the measurement of the relationship between generic business strategies and competitive advantage in tourist companies. In this case, competitive advantage is the dependent variable while the predictor variables consist of three major factors including cost leadership strategy, differentiation strategy, and focus strategy.
Friday, August 23, 2019
Point of view of the speaker in Do Not Go Gentle into that Good Night by Dylan Thomas - Essay Example The first lineÃ¢â¬â¢s diction has been purposefully chosen to make it a command. The second, third, fourth, and fifth stanzas are persuasive and encourage the father to show his Ã¢â¬Å"rage against the dying of the lightÃ¢â¬ (Thomas). In the sixth stanza, the poet requests his father to be his usual self and scream and yell at him to signify his strength. The overall tone of the poem is an outcome of the form and diction used by Thomas. Thomas acknowledges the fact that life and death are interrelated by pairing Ã¢â¬Å"gentleÃ¢â¬ with Ã¢â¬Å"rageÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"lightÃ¢â¬ with Ã¢â¬Å"nightÃ¢â¬ , and Ã¢â¬Å"dyingÃ¢â¬ with Ã¢â¬Å"goodÃ¢â¬ . Nevertheless, Thomas has made use of such diction that allows him to place his emphasis on life instead of death. This can be estimated from his frequent use of the words like Ã¢â¬Å"blazeÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"fierceÃ¢â¬ , and Ã¢â¬Å"greenÃ¢â¬ . Dylan Thomas is upset to see his otherwise robust and radical father become weak and blind in his eighties and thus, persuades him to revert to life. Works Cited: Grimes, Linda S. Ã¢â¬Å"Dylan Thomas' Do Not Go Gentle.Ã¢â¬ 20 Nov. 2006. Web. 10 July 2011. . Thomas, Dylan. Ã¢â¬Å"Do Not Go Gentle Into That Good Night.Ã¢â¬ n.d. Web. 10 July 2011. .
Homebuilding Industry - Case Study Example This finding however is hinged on the condition that the company will endeavor to intensify measures to control cost of sales, which is actually one of the pillars of the company's business model. 1. Scope - The industry addresses the demand for housing in U.K. and the U.S. The homebuilding business process entails land banking, site development and sales, which are mostly attained thru financing. A. Cause - According to Home Builders Federation chairman, i.e., Stewart Baseley, the slump is "unique" since it is due to the lower number of approved mortgage applications, attributable to global tightening in the credit market, rather than high unemployment or inflated borrowing interest rates. In fact, in March 2008, the volume of approved mortgage applications marked the lowest since 1997 (Bloomberg). B. Effect - With the contraction of demand, house prices fell year on year in April 2008, homebuilders are compelled to cut down on overhead. As of July 2008, Bloomberg reports that about 60,000 employed in the industry are likely to lose their jobs in the process. III. THE BUSINESS MODEL - George Wimpey plc's business model encompasses activities like acquisition of land, home and community design, urban regeneration and the development of supporting infrastructures (TaylorWimpey plc). Specifically, George Wimpey plc is engaged in the construction of apartments, 2-3 bedroom houses and 4-5 bedroom houses among others and is anchored to the business' four pillars (Wimpey Annual 2006) namely: 1. Land - Reduction of the real cost of land is essential and this can be achieved thru various strategies like the addition of medium and long term value added plots and close monitoring of land prices in the U.S. to resume timely and market driven land acquisition activities . 2. Costs - To become competitive in this industry, all projects must be cost driven and this can be done by establishing a framework that will measure and challenge every cost in the area. 3. Sales - Efficiency and effectiveness of the company's sales process are the key objectives reinforced by an excellent customer service. This plays a very vital role in realizing the company's revenue targets and desired profit margin. 4. People - Being a key element in the success, periodic and timely updating of the company's employee compensation package is vital in staying competitive in terms of retaining and procuring the best human resource in the industry. It also goes without saying that manpower training is a crucial in order to develop the future leaders of the organization that will bring the company into the future. IV. HISTORY OF THE COMPANY (Finding Universe) 1. Humble Beginnings - The original owners were Walter Tomes and George Wimpey who initially worked as contractors for residential projects that required structural and decorative masonry. In 1893, Walter Tomes sold his
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Supporting Children Essay The Children Act 1989 has influenced setting by bringing together several sets of guidance and provided the foundation for many of the standards practitioners adhere to and maintain when working with children. The Act requires that settings work together in the best interests of the child and that they form partnerships with parents and carers. It requires settings to have an appropriate adult: child ratios and policies and procedures on child protection. This Act has an influence in all areas of practice within setting. For example; planning. United Nations Conventions on the Rights of the Child 1989 Ã¢â¬â UNCRC is a human rights treaty which sets out the civil, political, economic, social, health and cultural rights of children. The Convention defines a child as any human being under the age of eighteen, unless the age of majority is attained earlier under a stateÃ¢â¬â¢s own domestic legislation. Children Act 2004 This Act was introduced as a result of the death of Victoria Climbie and was the introduction of Every Child Matters which ensures the wellbeing of children through its five outcomes. The Every Child Matters framework has influenced settings by giving them and other childcare settings a duty to find new ways of working together by sharing information and working co-operatively to protect children from harm. Human Rights Act 1998 This Act has had a huge impact in current legislation in the UK. Under the Act it was agreed that children would have the same rights as adults which means children have the right to dignity, respect and fairness in the way that they are treated, meaning that settings looking after children should be treating children with respect, dignity and fairness, meaning all children should be treated the same. The Act makes available in UK courts a remedy for breach of a Convention right, without the need to go to the European Court of Human Rights. Childcare Act 2006 The Act defines new duties for Local Authorities with respect to improving the Every Child Matters outcomes for pre-schoolÃ children, childcare for working parents and parental information services. E3 All the legislations and guidance in recent decades, including the Children Act 2004, make it clear that the childÃ¢â¬â¢s interests must come first. All professionals must work together to promote the childÃ¢â¬â¢s welfare before all else. All early years settings and schools must nominate a member of staff to oversee safeguarding and child protection. This person should be specifically trained to undertake this role. The whole team, including volunteers and students must work together to promote childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s welfare and keep them safe. Ã¢â¬Å"For some children, universal services such as early yearÃ¢â¬â¢s education and health visiting are not enough to ensure their healthy, safe and happy development. They may experience emotional difficulties, fall behind in their development or learning, or suffer the adverse effects of poverty, poor housing or ill health. There are also children in need, who are judged to be unlikely to reach or maintain a satisfactory level of health or development unless they are offered additional services.Ã¢â¬ (Bruce, 2010:448) This group includes children with disabilities. Infection control and stopping cross-contamination is essential when safeguarding children, as cross-contaminating food could be vital if children have allergies or intolerances. All members of staff in the setting should be aware of the allergies and intolerances of the children incase they have to prepare a meal. The members of staff should be aware and be in knowledge of the children who need to have an epi-Pen incase of an anaphylaxis shock. It is essential that practitioners are able to recognise possible signs and indicators of abuse. Sometimes you might notice physical signs that a child or young person is being abused. Babies and toddlers may for example, not have the language skills required, while older children may not always rec ognise that what the adult has been doing is wrong. Children and young people can also be living in fear as their abuser is likely to have a great deal of control over them. Most children have falls and minor accidents that result in bruising, cuts and bumps. The difference between genuine accidents and deliberate injuries to the child is often the location of the injuries and the frequency with which they occur. Children who have been physically abused may show through their behaviour and play that they are being abused. It is good practice to ask a child about an injury as most children who haveÃ had genuine accidents are happy to talk about what has happened to them. Children who have been physically abused might have been told by the abuser not to talk about what has happened and to say that they fell or bumped into something if they are asked about bruising or cuts. If a child seems upset or nervous when talking about an injury, you should always pass on this information to your supervisor. You may be asked to keep a note of the date and type of injury that you have seen, as well as a record of what the child said. Sexual abuse can be hard to detect as the child may not outwardly seem injured. Some physical signs may be apparent but behavioural indicators can be a more obvious clue. There are a few physical indicators of emotional abuse, although some older children may show self-destructive behaviour such as cutting themselves or drastic dieting. The main indicator of emotional abuse is the childÃ¢â¬â¢s need for attention and low self-esteem. Parents who neglect their children may have significant personal and other problems of their own. The children might be loved but parents find it hard to provide the basic care that the children need. Children who are being neglected are at risk of having accidents through being left unsupervised, either at home or while out playing. They are also vulnerable to attack from strangers. Children who are being abused may show behaviour that is not part of their normal pattern or is out of character. If the change of behaviour is long term then the practitioner should consider the possibility of abuse, meaning the child will be observed more closely for other signs. E4 The term inclusive is often used to describe the concept of making sure that everyone feels welcome and part of a setting. This applies to parents as well as children. In order to achieve this, settings should constantly be looking at what they are doing and how they are doing it, and think about whether they are really meeting childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s and their familiesÃ¢â¬â¢ needs. Settings that are fair, just and inclusive recognise that anti-discriminatory practice means that individual needs. Settings that are fair, just and inclusive recognise that anti-discriminatory practice means that individual needs are taken into account and that children and their families are not expected to all be the same. Settings that are proactive use many sources of information to reflect on their policies and activities. They may ask parents and children to provide feedback, suggestions andÃ comments about a whole range of issues, for example, what activities the children have enjoyed, session op ening hours and requests for information. Settings also seek information from organisations locally and nationally who support children and families with particular needs. Practitioners should work in a fair, just and inclusive way, taking into account both the statutory legal framework in the United Kingdom and the policies and procedures in the setting. You need to value, and show respect to all those you encounter in your setting as individuals. Definitions of inclusion have developed from being primarily focused on integrating children with special educational needs into a much broader concept concerning social justice and equality for all. Inclusion is the process by which early years settings develop their ethos, policies and practices to include all learners with the aim of meeting their individual needs. E5 and D2 Daily routine is a strategy which most settings have in use to empower children. The daily routine Ã¢â¬Å"provides a consistent, predictable sequence of events that gives children a sense of control over what happens in their dayÃ¢â¬ . Different settings develop different routine depend how long children stay in the premises and their age, but most of the daily routine contain basic components such as: outside routine, large group time, small group time, register time, art/craft time, tidy up time and snack/meal time. During the daily routine the child learns to make choices and discovers their consequences. This creates sort of secure environment, because children know what to expect and this allows them to be more involve in the tasks and more co-operative with the practitioner. The second strategy is planning and providing different activities and experiences for children. This strategy is suggested by the EYFS because allows for adventure, exploration and gaining new experiences. Different activities, which the setting provide develop range of skills and abilities. Taking part in activities, free-flow or structured, allows children learn social interactions and behaviours such as sharing equipment, taking turns. Providing activities allows children to use their language to communicate wiliness to participation in it, raising their confidence to communicate and self reliance to complete it. Providing different activities stimulate children`s imagination, cognitive, language, personal, social and emotionalÃ as well as physical development and allow to fulfil children`s potential. Encouraging childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s self-reliance is an important part of helping them to develop the independence and resilience which will enable them to face lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s demands and challenges in preparation for their adult lives. Encouraging self-reliance involves helping children to develop: independence, dependence, competence in looking after themselves, trust in their own judgement and actions and confidence in their own abilities. Ã¢â¬Å"Be patient and provide time for children to do things for themselves. For example, let younger children dress themselves; although it takes longer, it is an essential self-help skill. Children with physical disabilities may need sensitive support in this area.Ã¢â¬ (Meggitt, C 2012:296) Settings may use the skill of developing a positive self-image to empower children. A way of doing this is to allow the children to realise who they are; by realising they have their own identity. Children deal with things differently to adults and feel things more deeply than adults do, meaning they need a great deal of support to understand, express and deal with all their emotions that are going on. Children need to learn to be recognised by their name, developing their self-esteem which can be boosted by their key worker within a setting. By developing their self-esteem it begins to help them understand how to seek support from key workers or parents/carers to keep them safe and well, hel ping them to developing holistically. By allowing a child to develop his or her feelings it brings them the confidence that it is okay to show their emotions. By their key person being supportive of this it makes the child likely to tell them how he or she is feeling. Independence is another strategy. By a child learning to wash and dry their hands after going to the toilet, messy activities, playing outside, before and after bed, after blowing their nose, etc, it helps them understand the concept of their own and others hygiene. It is also very important for children of any age to understand how to care for their own teeth and understand how important it is to have good dental hygiene. Also becoming independent when going to the potty or toilet is vital when it comes to their lifestyle later on in life. E6 and D1 One example of how a setting may prepare young children is by using a teddy or a role-play to act out the situations that may occur during aÃ transition. Using a teddy may indirectly allow the child to express their concerns and fears about what their new setting may be like. Role-play is an effective tool for young children to engage in, so that they can act out what may happen in their new setting and how best to confront any problems they may encounter. Tassoni noted that Ã¢â¬Å"with older children and young people it is good to talk to them about the transition.Ã¢â¬ (2007:147) Talking regularly to older children is imperative so as to perceive an idea of the childÃ¢â¬â¢s fear or expectations for the transitions. As they will likely not remember everything that they may want to ask at once, therefore continued discussions are helpful for them so that they can settle any uneasiness. Having communication between the two settings is also imperative, as well as making sure that parents are involved, to help make the children more comfortable. The practitioners should meet in order for them to discuss the needs and preferences of the children in order to maintain some kind of continuity for them. Taking the children to visit their new settings in order to familiarise themselves with it is beneficial for them. On the other hand key workers or the new teacher for the younger children could visit the children so that they can start to bond with them. Some children deal with transitions with more difficulty than others do. Some children can find it difficult when moving from a nursery to a primary school. As children become older, they start to cope better with being separated from their parents, but it all depends on how well they coped with settling into new settings during transitions. Having stable relationships around the children can help them feel safe and secure during certain transitions in their life. Children need practitioners and caring adults who are able to recognise the importance of attachment and emotional wellbeing during periods of transitions. A way in which practitioners can help children settle during transitions is by bringing all the children (new and old) together at circle time. Activities like circle time allow children to learn new things, about themselves and each other, whether that is singing their favourite song, or telling the group what they did at the weekend Ã¢â¬â this links into discussion and display. Discussing childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s work and displaying it on boards or posters helps them recognise that they are part of the team and that they feel welcome. E7 and B1 Discrimination can occur even when individual workers have positive attitudes. If the organisations or institution does not consider and meet the needs of everyone involved in it, and makes assumptions based on one set of values/stereotyped views, institutional discrimination can occur. This can happen when, for example, children with disabilities are not given access to the full curriculum, the meals service does not meet the dietary requirements of certain religious groups, a uniform code does not consider the cultural traditions of certain groups concerning dress. Childcare workers are often not aware of how powerful the culture and institutionalised practices of their organisations are in discriminating against certain groups of children or their families. Institutional discrimination is not necessarily a conscious policy on the part of organisation; more often it occurs because of a failure to consider the diversity of the community. Whether conscious or unconscious, i nstitutional discrimination is a powerful and damaging force. Children may suffer the effects of stereotyping and discrimination in a number of ways, for example, Research by Milner (1983) shows that children as young as three attach value to skin colour, with both black and white children perceiving white skin as Ã¢â¬ËbetterÃ¢â¬â¢ than black. This indicates that children absorb messages about racial stereotyping from a very early age. These messages are very demanding to self-esteem of black children and may result in a failure to achieve their potential. Harm is done to white children too, and to society in general, unless this perception of racial superiority is confronted and challenged effectively. These findings underline the need for all settings, including those in all-white areas, to provide a positive approach that challenges stereotyping. Even very young children can hold fixed ideas about what boys can do and what girls can do. Observation of childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s play shows that some activities are avoided because of perceptions of what is appropriate for girls and boys. This can result in boys and girls having a very limited view of the choices available to males and females in our society. This is particularly significant when, despite advances in recent years, many women still underachieve. Children with disabilities and their families are subject to many forms of discrimination. Even a caring environment may neglect the ordinary needs of the disabled child out of concern to meet their special needs. This may mean that the disability isÃ seen first, rather than the child, and that the childÃ¢â¬â¢s development is affected because of limited opportunities and limited expectations. Children may find it difficult to form relationships with others, meaning that practitioners need to provide activities that show inclusive practice. The adultÃ¢â¬â¢s role is to promote interactions between children, giving them group activities to do, making sure they are bonding with each other. By the adultÃ¢â¬â¢s giving the children activities it makes them interact with children they wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t necessarily interact with outside of the setting. Direct discrimination is when discrimination occurs when a child is treated less favourably than another child in similar circumstances. Indirect discrimination is when discrimination occurs when a condition is applied that will affect a group of children unfairly when compared to others Ã¢â¬â this includes religions like Sikhs. Discrimination of any kind prevents children and young people from developing a feeling of self-esteem. The effects of being discriminated against can last the whole of a childÃ¢â¬â¢s life. C1 Jerome BrunerÃ¢â¬â¢s theory on scaffolding is about encouraging children to learn something new by supporting and helping them when they need help, and then letting the child do it on their own when the adult feels they are confident enough. Bruner believes that humans have the ability to learn and grow with no limit; therefore, practitioners should have confidence in the children to learn something new. Although BrunerÃ¢â¬â¢s theory is adult-initiated, it still empowers children. When the scaffolding takes place, practitioners must be enthusiastic and encourage children to learn; practitioners must make it enjoyable and exciting to make sure children do not get bored and distracted. This empowers children as when the practitioner slowly moves away, and allows the child to do it on their own, the childÃ¢â¬â¢s confidence and self-reliance increases: they believe that they are able to do things on their own. This obviously increases their independence; they will be happy with themselves and will want to do things on their own more often. If a child has a lot of difficulty, and canÃ¢â¬â¢t manage to do what they have learnt on their own, the practitioner can still support them until they can manage to do it on their own. As long as the practitioner does not do the work for them, and the child is still learning, the practitioner can give the child as much support as they need, until theyÃ can do it on their own. Another thing which is also good about BrunerÃ¢â¬â¢s theory is that once children will be able to do certain things on their own, for example, writing certain letters without help or without reminders on how to write them, those children will be able to help other children who have difficulty with writing letters. This will develop social interaction, and both children will be happy with themselves. A1 The Children Act 1989 allocated duties to the local authorities, courts, parents and other child-based agencies in the UK, ensuring that the children are safeguarded and their welfare is promoted. Centered on the idea that children are best cared for within their own families; however, it also makes provisions for instances when parents and families do not co-operate with child-based agencies and statutory bodies, like OFSTED. The act states that childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s welfare should be the paramount concern to the courts. Specifying that any delays in the system processes will have a detrimental impact on a childÃ¢â¬â¢s welfare. The court needs to take into account the childÃ¢â¬â¢s wishes; physical, emotional and educational needs, age, sex, background circumstances, the likely effect of change on the child, the harm the child has suffered or is likely to suffer, parents ability to meet the childÃ¢â¬â¢s needs and the powers available to the court. This influences working practice as the practitioners need to make sure what is going on at home, and follow the correct procedures to make sure that the childÃ¢â¬â¢s welfare is main priority. Children Act 2004 is the amended version of the Children Act 1989. This act was amended in 2004 largely in consequence of the Victoria Climbie inquiry. The ActÃ¢â¬â¢s ultimate purpose is to make the UK better and safer for children of all ages. The idea behind the act is to promote co-ordination between multiple official entities to improve the overall well-being of children. The 2004 act also specifically provided for including and affecting disabled children. The sections 39-48 in the Childcare Act 2006 introduce the EYFS which supports the delivery of high quality education and care for children from birth to age 5. The UNCRC involves a ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Commissioner. England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland, each have their own ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Commissioners. The Childrens Commissioner for England promotes and protects childrensÃ rights in England. She does this by listening to what children and young people say about what matters to them and making sure adults in charge take their views and interests into account. In article 6 of the UNCRC it states that Ã¢â¬Å"all children have the right to life. Governments should ensure that children survive and develop healthilyÃ¢â¬ . The UNCRC supports children in their rights, including from abuse or help to safeguard. Section 3 of the Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) is all about safeguarding and welfare requirements within early years settings that practitioners must abide by. Section 3.42 is all about medicines, meaning that practitioners must keep a record of all medicines in the setting and the dosage allowances to the children. Illness and injuries is 3.48 in the EYFS meaning that all accidents, injuries and illnesses should be reported in an accident book. 3.45 Ã¢â¬â food Ã¢â¬â all allergies and intolerances should be kept on file for all those members of staff whom are preparing or serving food. Section 3 is all about safeguarding the children making sure that the children within settings should be protected as Ã¢â¬ËEvery Child MattersÃ¢â¬â¢. Ã¢â¬Å"Governments must do everything to protect children and young people from all form of violence, abuse, neglect and mistreatment.Ã¢â¬ (Meggitt, 2012:243) Bibliography Beaver, M, Brewster, J, Green, S, Neaum, S, Sheppard, H, Tallack, J, Walker, M (2008) CACHE Level 3 Childcare and Education, Cheltenham, Nelson Thornes Bruce, T, Meggitt, C, Grenier, J (2010) Childcare and Education, 5th Edition, London, Hodder Education Daly, M, Byers, E, Taylor, W (2006) Understanding Early Years Theory in Practice, Oxford, Heinemann Department for Education (2012) Statutory Framework for the Early Years Foundation Stage, London, Early Education Meggitt, C, Bruce, T, Grenier, J (2012) CACHE Level 3 Childcare and Education, 2nd Edition, London, Hodder Education Tassoni, P, Beith, K, Bulman, K, Griffin, S (2010) Level 3 Diploma Children and Young Peoples Workforce, London, Heinemann http://www.hse.gov.uk/disability/law.htm 27/05/2014
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